Scree Representation on Topographic Maps

  title={Scree Representation on Topographic Maps},
  author={Bernhard Jenny and Ernst Hutzler and Lorenz Hurni},
  journal={The Cartographic Journal},
  pages={141 - 149}
Abstract Scree patterns are an important element of mountain maps in Swiss style. The size and density of scree dots vary with the exposition towards a source of illumination, which makes the dots extremely labour intensive to map without specialized algorithms. This paper identifies design principles for the symbolisation of scree fields on mountain slopes and presents a digital method for the quick placement of dot symbols requiring only minimal interventions by a cartographer. When… 
Complexities of designing terrain maps illustrated with horizontal hachures
ABSTRACT Designing maps involves numerous decisions on the part of the cartographer, while designing terrain maps adds unique complexities. Terrain is often conceptualized as varying in a smooth and
This paper explains how rock representations are drawn in vector and raster mode at the Federal Office of Topography swisstopo, the National Mapping Agency of Switzerland. The drawing efficiency is
Design Principles for Swiss-style Rock Drawing
Abstract Swiss-style rock drawing uses shaded hachures to show the characteristic forms and the third dimension of rocks and cliffs. Rock faces, trenches, gullies, faults and other rock features
Point Pattern Synthesis
The automatic method ensures that symbols do not overlap and do not graphically conflict with other map features, and is implemented in a free plug-in for the Adobe Illustrator vector graphics editor.
Improving the representation of major landforms in analytical relief shading
An automated digital method is introduced that produces shaded relief with locally adjusted illumination directions to simulate the techniques and cartographic principles of manual relief shading and best highlights major landforms in terrain characterized by sharp, clearly defined ridges and valleys.
Elevation models for reproducible evaluation of terrain representation
The goal is to increase the reproducibility of terrain rendering algorithms and techniques across different scales and landscapes by introducing elevation models of varying terrain types, available to the user at no cost, with minimal common data imperfections.
Using Hachures to Construct a 3D Doline Model Automatically
The extraction method for doline outlines is presented, the rules of visual perception under different illumination conditions are considered, the mathematical models for representing the morphological characteristics of the doline are studied, and a process for 3D modelling of dolines is introduced.
Cartography-Oriented Design of 3D Geospatial Information Visualization – Overview and Techniques
This paper revisits cartographic design principles for 3D geospatial visualization and introduces an extended 3D semiotic model that complies with the general, interactive visualization pipeline and proposes NPR techniques to interactively synthesize cartographic renditions of basic feature types, such as terrain, water, and buildings.
Preliminary Study on Automatic Modeling Method of 3D Relief Symbols with Building-Up Style
  • N. Yang, Ran Yi, L. Wan
  • Computer Science
    2013 Seventh International Conference on Image and Graphics
  • 2013
This paper advances an automatic modeling method of 3D relief symbols with building-up style that can be used to reduce the production cost and improve the production efficiency of3D relief symbol.
Generalisation in Practice Within National Mapping Agencies
This chapter includes contributions from seven NMAs, illustrating how automated generalisation is used in practice within their partly or fully automated databases and maps production lines, what results are currently being obtained and what further developments are on-going or planned.


Digital Cliff Drawing for Topographic Maps: Traditional Representations by Means of New Technologies
New techniques are presented in detail for the generation of simplified ridge-line representations in an entirely digital and effective manner for topographic mountain maps.
Cartography of High Mountain Areas Testing of a New Digital Cliff Drawing Method
From now on, the French National Mapping Agengy (IGN France) is set up with the BDTopo®. Th is is a topographic vector database that covers the whole national territory. IGN decided to produce base
Terrain analysis : principles and applications
Digital Terrain Analysis (J. Wilson & J. Gallant). Digital Elevation Models and Representation of Terrain Shape (M. Hutchinson & J. Gallant). Primary Topographic Attributes (J. Gallant & J. Wilson).
Glaciers and Glaciation
Glaciers and Glaciation is the classic textbook for all students of glaciation. Stimulating and accessible, it has established a reputation as a comprehensive and essential resource. In this new
Neuaufbau der schweizerischen Landeskarte: Inhalt und Kartengrafik
Zu den wichtigsten Aufgaben des Bundesamtes für Landestopografie (swisstopo) gehören die Erfassung und Aufbereitung räumlicher Referenzdaten und die Herstellung daraus abgeleiteter Produkte hoher
Understanding Maps: A Systematic History of Their Use and Development
Cartographic Relief Presentation
Cartographic Relief Presentation, De Gruyter, Berlin
  • 1982
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