Scratch: programming for all

  title={Scratch: programming for all},
  author={Mitchel Resnick and John H. Maloney and A. Monroy-Hern{\'a}ndez and Natalie Rusk and Evelyn Eastmond and Karen Brennan and Amon Millner and Eric Rosenbaum and Jay S. Silver and Brian Silverman and Yasmin B. Kafai},
  journal={Commun. ACM},
"Digital fluency" should mean designing, creating, and remixing, not just browsing, chatting, and interacting. 

Evaluating Scratch to Introduce Younger Schoolchildren to Programming

The Scratch system was designed to enable computing novices, without much programming experience, to develop their creativity, make multimedia products, and share them with their friends and on a

Scratch-based learning objects for novice programmers: exploring quality aspects and perceptions for primary education

Learning computer programming can be challenging for primary school students due to its abstract concepts. While teachers seek effective ways to introduce such concepts, the application of learning...

Coding at a crossroads

While millions of students worldwide have enjoyed coding experiences over the last decade, the next challenge is spreading educational values and approaches.

From One Language to the Next: Applications of Analogical Transfer for Programming Education

a discussion of the computing education literature on transfer in order to facilitate comparison and integration. We conclude the paper with a discussion of developing CS-speciic theories of transfer

Software Reuse in Game Development : Creating Building Blocks for Prototyping

As games and the technologies used by them have become more advanced, the cost of producing games have increased. Today, the latest AAA titles are the results of hundreds or as many as thousands of

Block-based programming in computer science education

Considering how block-based programming environments and tools might be used at the introductory level and beyond.

Developing and evaluating pedagogical digital manipulatives for preschool: the case of TOK - touch, organize, create

Tese de doutoramento em Ciencias da Educacao (ramo de conhecimento em Tecnologia Educativa)

Programmed or Not : A study about programming teachers’ beliefs and intentions in relation to curriculum

In the intersection of technology, curriculum and intentions, a specific issue of interest is found in the gap between teachers’ intentions and implementations of curriculum. Instead of approaching

A constructivist, mobile and principled approach to the learning and teaching of programming

Novices in programming courses need to acquire a theoretical understanding of programming concepts as well as practical skills for applying them, but in traditional learning environments students

The Scratch Programming Language and Environment

How the Scratch programming language and environment support self-directed learning through tinkering and collaboration with peers is explored.



Computational thinking

It represents a universally applicable attitude and skill set everyone, not just computer scientists, would be eager to learn and use.

Sowing the Seeds for a more Creative Society

Unfortunately, few of today’s classrooms focus on helping students develop as creative thinkers. Even students who perform well in school are often unprepared for the challenges that they encounter

High tech programmers in low-income communities: Seeding reform in a community technology center

This work aims to provide a history of web exceptionalism from 1989 to 2002, a period chosen in order to explore its roots as well as specific cases up to and including the year in which descriptions of “Web 2.0” began to circulate.

Programming by choice: urban youth learning programming with scratch

Scratch is described, a visual, block-based programming language designed to facilitate media manipulation for novice programmers and the motivations of urban youth who choose to program in Scratch rather than using one of the many other software packages available to them are discussed.

Scratch for budding computer scientists

It is found that, not only did Scratch excite students at a critical time (i.e.,, their first foray into computer science), it also familiarized the inexperienced among th with fundamentals of programming without the distraction of syntax.

Empowering kids to create and share programmable media

such as Flickr and YouTube and blogs, which support usergenerated content, enabling people to create and share text, graphics, photos, and videos. But for the most part, Web 2.0 does not include

Lowering the barriers to programming: A taxonomy of programming environments and languages for novice programmers

A taxonomy of languages and environments designed to make programming more accessible to novice programmers of all ages, organized by their primary goal, either to teach programming or to use programming to empower their users.

Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas.

In the early 1960s, Seymour Papert joined the faculty of MIT and founded the Artificial Intelligence Lab with Marvin Minski, and was in the right place with the right background to consider the educational possibilities of technology.

Changing Minds: Computers, Learning, and Literacy

Rejecting the simplistic notion that the computer is merely a tool for more efficient instruction, diSessa shows how computers can be the basis for a new literacy that will change how people think and learn.

Programming Environments for Novices

We describe DISCOVER, a tutor for elementary programming that combines a free phase, in which students may experiment in building and executing programs of their own, with a guided phase where