Scotopic spectral sensitivity of phakic and aphakic observers extending into the near ultraviolet

  title={Scotopic spectral sensitivity of phakic and aphakic observers extending into the near ultraviolet},
  author={M. Scott Griswold and William S. Stark},
  journal={Vision Research},
Despite interest in ultraviolet (UV) damage and UV vision in lower vertebrates, there are few recent publications on human UV sensitivity. We obtained dark-adapted spectra from 4 aphakic and 5 normal eyes at 8.8 degrees off-fovea using the staircase method. Our measurements extended from 314.5 nm, near the limit imposed by corneal UV absorbance, to 650 nm. Phakic and aphakic sensitivities resembled the traditional rod spectrum at long wavelengths with a peak around 500 nm. However, aphakic… Expand
Individual variation in the transmission of UVB radiation in the young adult eye
The large individual differences in UV reaching the retina of younger individuals suggests equally significant vulnerability to the actinic effects of this highly energetic light. Expand
The spectral transmission of ocular media suggests ultraviolet sensitivity is widespread among mammals
All species whose lenses removed short wavelengths had retinae specialized for high spatial resolution and relatively high cone numbers, suggesting that UV removal is primarily linked to increased acuity. Expand
Ultraviolet sensitivity of three cone types in the aphakic observer determined by chromatic adaptation
The short (and, to a lesser extent, the long) wavelength cone sensitivities are higher in the UV than expected and the middle-wavelength mechanism had a visible wavelength maximum resembling a nomogram plus an UV sensitivity fitting a cis-peak. Expand
Comparative spectrophotometer analysis of ultraviolet-light filtering, blue light-filtering and violet-light filtering intraocular lenses.
  • Jeong Woo Park, Chul Young Choi
  • Medicine
  • Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO
  • 2021
Purpose To compare the light transmittance property of 7 currently used intraocular lens models (IOLs) by spectrophotometer data. Materials and methods Light-transmission spectra of 7 IOL modelsExpand
Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception
  • M. Mainster
  • Medicine
  • British Journal of Ophthalmology
  • 2006
Blue and violet blocking IOLs provide less photoprotection than middle aged crystalline lenses, which do not prevent age related macular degeneration (AMD) and pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments if the unproved phototoxicity-AMD hypothesis is valid. Expand
How much blue light should an IOL transmit?
Determining authoritatively how much blue light an optimal IOL should block requires definitive studies to determine the action spectrum of the retinal phototoxicity potentially involved in human retinal ageing, and the amount of shorter wavelength blue light required for older adults to perform essential activities in dimly lit environments. Expand
Ultraviolet Light Damage and Reversal by Retinoic Acid in Juvenile Goldfish Retina
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Blue-blocking IOLs decrease photoreception without providing significant photoprotection.
Yellow chromophores are placebos for prevention of AMD that permanently restrict a pseudophake's dim light and circadian photoreception at ages when they are needed most. Expand
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The use of a combination of photocromic lens with a selective blue-violet light filter showed functional benefit in all evaluated patients. Expand
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The AcrySof SN60AT Natural IOL provided contrast sensitivity under photopic and scotopic conditions (with and without glare) and blue color perception comparable that obtained with the Acrysof SA60AT IOL. Expand


Photopic sensitivities to ultraviolet and visible wavelengths and the effects of the macular pigments in human aphakic observers.
  • W. Stark
  • Materials Science, Medicine
  • Current eye research
  • 1987
The spectral sensitivities obtained from aphakic human subjects in the photopic range suggest that the ocular media, including the macular pigments, have a profound effect on the spectral sensitivity. Expand
Transmission of the Ocular Media
The spectral transmittance of ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared light through the ocular media of humans has been measured. Using freshly enucleated eyes, the transmittances of each componentExpand
Spectral sensitivity of the pseudophakic eye.
Spectrophotometric measurements indicated that polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses do not mimic the crystalline lens in absorption of shortwave visible light and near-UV light. TheseExpand
Separate mechanisms for retinal damage by ultraviolet-A and mid-visible light.
The results provide convincing evidence that different chromophores mediate damage by UVA and green light and a sound model is provided for further investigation into the different forms of photic retinopathy. Expand
The ultraviolet receptor of bird retinas.
Measurements demonstrate the basis for the ultraviolet sensitivity of birds that has been seen in behavioral experiments, and they provide further evidence that many vertebrates share with insects vision in the near-ultraviolet. Expand
Biochemical photoadaptation in vision: U.V.-absorbing pigments in fish eye tissues
Ocular tissues from 52 species (19 families) of tropical marine fish from the Great Barrier Reef were found to contain variable levels of specific pigments which absorb u.v. light in the spectral region 300—380 nm, suggesting that possession of these pigments is not an obligate adaptation to protect ocular tissue from u.V. damage. Expand
Ultraviolet photosensitivity in goldfish: An independent U.V. retinal mechanism
Heart rate conditioned goldfish were sensitive to u.v. stimuli at wavelengths down to 340 nm and a retinal origin for the u.V. peak showed an orderly change in sensitivity with alteration in adapting u. v. adapting background. Expand
The purpose of this review is to integrate what is known about UV vision in invertebrates, which have been particularly well studied, with a growing literature on UV sensitivity and UV effects in the visual systems of humans and other vertebrates. Expand
The nature and properties of squirrel lens yellow pigment.
The low molecular weight yellow pigment in the gray squirrel lens is confirmed to be n-acetyl-3-OH-kynurenine (NAK). This conclusion is based upon the results of studies of the compound's optical,Expand
Ultraviolet induced damage in the primate cornea and retina.
  • J. Zuclich
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Current eye research
  • 1984
Data discussed include the action spectra for far- and near-UV induced corneal damage, the pulsewidth dependence and oxygen dependence ofnear-UV cornea thresholds, and recovery rates of corneAL epithelial damage following ultraviolet induced cell lethality. Expand