Scientific Opinion on marine biotoxins in shellfish – Emerging toxins : Ciguatoxin group 1 EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain

@inproceedings{Doerge2010ScientificOO,
  title={Scientific Opinion on marine biotoxins in shellfish – Emerging toxins : Ciguatoxin group 1 EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain},
  author={Daniel R. Doerge and Eugenia Dogliotti and Lutz Edler and Peter B. Farmer and Metka Filipi{\vc} and Johanna Fink-Gremmels and Peter Fürst and Thierry Gu{\'e}rin and Helle K. Knutsen and Miroslav Machala and A. Mutti},
  year={2010}
}
The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) assessed the risks to human health related to the consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-group toxins in fish. CTX-group toxins occur in fish as a result of biotransformation of precursor gambiertoxins produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. CTX-group toxins cause ciguatera fish poisoning. They are mainly found in Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean regions and are classified as Pacific (P), Caribbean (C) and Indian… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Ciguatera toxins: toxicity and food safety
Human Poisoning from Marine Toxins: Unknowns for Optimal Consumer Protection
TLDR
Gathering of epidemiological data in humans, chronic toxicity studies and exploring relative potency by oral administration are critical to minimize human health risks related to these toxin classes in the near future.
Food Safety Risk in Germany From Mislabeled Imported Fish: Ciguatera Outbreak Trace-Back, Toxin Elucidation, and Public Health Implications
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a prevalent food related health risk, caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Seafood is the most traded food commodity worldwide, and
Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, Regulatory Limits and Reference Methods
TLDR
Monitoring of algal blooms producing marine biotoxins should be regularly assessed in order to obtain more reliable, accurate estimates of bloom toxicity and their potential impacts.
Pacific ciguatoxins in food web components of coral reef systems in the Republic of Kiribati.
TLDR
No significant correlation between P-CTX levels and lipid content in three target predatory fishes indicated that accumulation of P- CTXs does not depend on fat content, and a weak but significant positive relationship was observed between δ(15)N and P-ctX-1 levels, but further investigation is required to confirm its biomagnification potential.
Evaluation of seafood toxicity in the Australes archipelago (French Polynesia) using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay
  • R. Pawlowiez, H. Darius, M. Chinain
  • Environmental Science
    Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment
  • 2013
TLDR
In Rurutu and Raivavae islands, the main findings concern the presence of CTX-like compounds in giant clams and sea urchins, suggesting a second bio-accumulation route for CFP toxins in the ciguatera food chain.
Depuration Kinetics and Growth Dilution of Caribbean Ciguatoxin in the Omnivore Lagodon rhomboides: Implications for Trophic Transfer and Ciguatera Risk
TLDR
Comparing growth dilution correction models to the overall concentration found that growth was a major factor reducing C-CTX concentrations, and that the body burden was largely unchanged, causing pseudo-elimination and a half-life of 143–148 days (R2 = 0.36).
Identification of New CTX Analogues in Fish from the Madeira and Selvagens Archipelagos by Neuro-2a CBA and LC-HRMS
Ciguatera Poisoning (CP) is caused by consumption of fish or invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Presently CP is a public concern in some temperate regions, such as Macaronesia
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 92 REFERENCES
Human fatality associated with Pacific ciguatoxin contaminated fish.
Analysis of toxin profiles in three different fish species causing ciguatera fish poisoning in Guadeloupe, French West Indies
TLDR
This study confirms the usefulness of LC-MS analysis to determine the ciguatoxins levels and the toxin profile in fish flesh hazardous to humans.
A fluorimetric method based on changes in membrane potential for screening paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels.
TLDR
The results indicate that this fluorescent assay is a specific, very sensitive, rapid, and reliable method of monitoring PSP toxin levels in samples from seafood products and toxic algae.
Use of two detection methods to discriminate ciguatoxins from brevetoxins: application to great barracuda from Florida Keys.
Isolation and characterisation of Caribbean ciguatoxins from the horse-eye jack (Caranx latus).
  • J. Vernoux, R. Lewis
  • Environmental Science
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1997
Ciguatera risk assessment in two toxic sites of French Polynesia using the receptor-binding assay.
Ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish on the eastern Mediterranean*
TLDR
The results suggest the presence of ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish of the eastern Mediterranean, and additional analyses are needed to determine whether these substances are cigu atoxins or related polyethers.
Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.
  • L. Lehane, R. Lewis
  • Environmental Science
    International journal of food microbiology
  • 2000
Detection of ciguatoxin in fish tissue using sandwich ELISA and neuroblastoma cell bioassay
TLDR
The applicability of a new enzyme‐linked immunoassay (ELISA) for detecting ciguatoxin (CTX) in fish tissue was evaluated by testing three fish species commonly implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Hawaii, concluding that the ELISA has potential for future applications in screening fish populations for CTX.
HPLC/tandem electrospray mass spectrometry for the determination of Sub-ppb levels of Pacific and Caribbean ciguatoxins in crude extracts of fish.
TLDR
HPLC/MS/MS provides a sensitive analytical approach, not previously available, for the determination of Pacific and Caribbean ciguatoxins at sub-ppb levels in fish flesh.
...
...