School Hopscotch: A Comprehensive Review of K–12 Student Mobility in the United States

  title={School Hopscotch: A Comprehensive Review of K–12 Student Mobility in the United States},
  author={Richard O. Welsh},
  journal={Review of Educational Research},
  pages={475 - 511}
This article provides an integrative review of the extant literature on K–12 student mobility in the United States. Student mobility is a widespread phenomenon with significant policy implications. Changing schools is most prevalent among minority and low-income students in urban school districts. There is an ongoing debate about whether student mobility is helpful or harmful. Earlier research compared movers with nonmovers using cross-sectional data and did not always include controls for the… 

Figures from this paper

Intra-District Student Mobility, School Discipline and Gender: Evidence From Clark County, Nevada
Student mobility and school discipline are two prominent challenges in urban school districts. The interaction of gender with school discipline in shaping patterns of student mobility has received
The Push and Pull of School Performance: Evidence from Student Mobility in New Orleans
We investigate student mobility in a choice-based system that has gone to scale, New Orleans, to gain insight into an underlying improvement mechanism of choice-based reform and its potential
Who Switches Schools? Child-Level Predictors of School Mobility in Middle School Students
It is vital for researchers examining student outcomes of school mobility to understand and control for selection effects—the many ways that students who experience school mobility are different from
Ebbs and Flows: Revisiting the Relationship between Student Mobility, Segregation, and Neighborhoods
ABSTRACT In order to access and take advantage of the educational opportunity promised by the Brown decision, student mobility is an operative consideration. In this study, I examine the relationship
School Mobility and High School Dropout: Seasonal and Developmental Timing Matters
Non-promotional school changes are fairly common, and although most mobile students successfully adjust to new peers, routines, and teachers, school mobility can sometimes indicate risk of
Opposite Sides of the Same Coin? Exploring the Connections between School Absenteeism and Student Mobility
ABSTRACT Mobile students and absent students are important subsets of at-risk students in schools and districts nationwide. As such, student mobility and school absenteeism are two challenges in K-12
The School Discipline Dilemma: A Comprehensive Review of Disparities and Alternative Approaches
In recent decades, K–12 school discipline policies and practices have garnered increasing attention among researchers, policymakers, and educators. Disproportionalities in school discipline raise
Student Mobility, Segregation, and Achievement Gaps: Evidence From Clark County, Nevada
Student mobility and school segregation are two important issues with significant equity implications for urban school districts that are often addressed separately. This article examines the
Putting Homelessness in Context: The Schools and Neighborhoods of Students Experiencing Homelessness
The number of K–12 students experiencing homelessness is increasing across the country. Schools may serve as sources of support and stability for homeless children, but little is known about the


The Causes and Consequences of Student Mobility.
Student mobility-students making nonpromotional school changes-is widespread in many schools and districts throughout the United States. Mobility not only can harm the students who change schools, it
The Multiple Dimensions of Student Mobility and Implications for Academic Performance: Evidence from New York City Elementary and Middle School Students
The purpose of this report is threefold: First to develop measures of alternative types of student mobility; second to document the magnitudes of each type of mobility in aggregate and by student
Student Mobility and Local School Improvement in Chicago
In the typical Chicago elementary school, only 50% of its students remain enrolled in the school over a three-year period. Residential changes account for the majority of these moves, but over
Student Mobility and the Increased Risk of High School Dropout
A variety of evidence suggests that students in the United States change schools frequently. But there has been relatively little research that examines the educational consequences of student
Students on the Move: Residential and Educational Mobility in America's Schools.
Research on the effects of mobility on children's development and educational attainment has focused on change of residence, but paid little attention to change of schools. This study used data from
School Enrollment Changes and Student Achievement Growth
Students in the United States change schools often, and frequent changes are associated with poor outcomes along numerous dimensions. These moves occur for many reasons, including both promotional
A Pervasive School Culture for the Betterment of Student Outcomes: One School's Approach to Student Mobility
This article illustrates how one southern California school has developed a culture where all students receive the same benefits and opportunities. While there is no formal "program," all students,
Reducing School Mobility
A cluster-randomized field experiment in 52 predominantly Hispanic elementary schools in San Antonio, Texas, and Phoenix, Arizona, tested whether student mobility in early elementary school was reduced through Families and Schools Together, an intervention that builds social capital among families, children, and schools.
Patterns of Urban Student Mobility and Local School Reform
Student mobility is a topic that frequently surfaces in discussions about the problems of urban schooling. Surprisingly, it tends to fade from the agenda as discussion turns toward reform initiatives
Student mobility and school dropout