Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study.

  title={Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study.},
  author={Assen Jablensky and Norman Sartorius and G. Ernberg and Martha Anker and Ailsa E. Korten and John E. Cooper and Richard Day and A. Bertelsen},
  journal={Psychological medicine. Monograph supplement},
This monograph presents the findings of a WHO Collaborative Study on the Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorders (DOS). The study was designed to investigate further some of the findings of the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia (IPSS) which produced the unexpected finding that patients suffering from schizophrenia in the centres in developing countries appear to have a more favourable outcome at both two and five years follow-up than initially similar patients in centres… 
Implications of the results of the WHO Study on Determinants of Outcome in Schizophrenia
The WHO Collaborative Study on the Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorders was designed to investigate further some of the findings of the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia
Incidence and Outcome of Schizophrenia Across the Globe
interpretation of the results from the “Ten Country Study” led to the widespread beliefs that the incidence of schizophrenia is similar across populations and cultures and that its prognosis is more favourable for persons who live in low- and middle- Income countries (LAMICs) compared to those living in high-income countries.
Long-term follow-up of schizophrenia in 16 countries
A new initiative in which approximately 2500 subjects involved in previous WHO multicentre schizophrenia studies are being followed up for between 15 and 25 years after initial examination is described.
Outcome of schizophrenia: some transcultural observations with particular reference to developing countries
  • P. Kulhara
  • Psychology, Medicine
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
  • 2005
The present paper provides a description of data based and methodologically sound studies of outcome of schizophrenia from developing and non-Western countries and compares the results and it is obvious that the outcomes of schizophrenia in developing countries is generally more favourable.
Outcome in schizophrenia and related disorders compared between developing and developed countries
The predominant predictor effects on two-year pattern of course continued to be centre and type of onset, but complex interactions between these variables and other predictor variables are seen in specific centre groupings not strictly defined by ‘developing’ and ‘developed’.
Is the outcome of schizophrenia really better in developing countries?
It is argued that the study of the long-term course of this mental disorder in developing countries is a major research question and it is time to thoroughly and systematically explore cross-cultural variation in the course and outcome of schizophrenia.
A 15-year follow-up of schizophrenia in Ireland
Outcome for the majority of followed-up patients was poor in symptomatic and functional terms, one of the poorest among the DOSMeD groups, and the question whether functional psychotic illness outcome is inherently poorer in Ireland than elsewhere remains unanswered.
The ABC schizophrenia study: a preliminary overview of the results
In early-onset cases, social course and outcome, studied prospectively over 5 years, was determined by the level of social development at onset through social stagnation, which was not explainable by social variables, such as differences in the male-female societal roles.
Onset and clinical course of schizophrenia in Butajira-Ethiopia
This large community-based study differs from most previous studies in terms of higher male to female ratio, earlier age of onset in females and the predominance of negative symptoms.


On the expression of psychosis in different cultures: Schizophrenia in an indian and in a Nigerian community
This sub-study of the WHO Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorders research project was aimed at characterizing the behavioral and expressive qualities of schizophrenia in two highly
Stressful life events preceding the acute onset of schizophrenia: A cross-national study from the World Health Organization
The study demonstrates that life event methodologies originating in the developed countries can be adapted for international studies and may be used to collect reasonably reliable and comparable cross-cultural data on psychosocial factors affecting the course of schizophrenic disorders.
Is Outcome for Schizophrenia Better in Nonindustrial Societies?: The Case of Sri Lanka
  • N. Waxler
  • Psychology
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • 1979
A 5-year follow-up of schizophrenic patients living in the peasant society of Sri Lanka shows that social adjustment and clinical state of a sample of first admission schizophrenics examined at the end of 5 years are remarkably good.
Two-year follow-up of the patients included in the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia.
Results indicate that patients diagnosed as schizophrenic on the basis of standardized assessments and clearly specified diagnostic criteria demonstrated very marked variations of course and outcome over a 2-year period.
Expressed Emotion and Schizophrenia in North India
It is concluded that the significantly better outcome of Chandigarh first-contact patients compared with a London sample is largely due to the significantly lower proportion of high-EE relatives in the North Indian sample.
A technique for studying psychiatric morbidity in in-patient and out-patient series and in general population samples
  • J. Wing
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychological Medicine
  • 1977
It is suggested that techniques of this kind can be scientifically useful in comparing the level of morbidity in various populations, both referred and non-referred, and in testing theories concerned with the causes and treatment of various types of psychiatric disorders.
A statistical investigation of the incidence of mental disorder in Norway
From incidence rates by age, sex and diagnosis, the expectations of the various forms of mental diseases are calculated and are a valuable supplement to those obtained by the “direct method” generally used in psychiatric studies of heredity.
Relatives' Expressed Emotion and the Course of Schizophrenia in Chandigarh
A two-year follow-up was conducted of a subsample of the Chandigarh cohort of first-contact schizophrenic patients from the WHO Determinants of Outcome project, and there was a significant association between initial hostility and subsequent relapse.
The Transmission of Schizophrenia
Seven papers are presented on genetics, including a critical review of the literature, three of twins, and a genealogic study in Iceland where genealogy could be traced for seven people.
Multicultural Studies and the Nature of Schizophrenia: A Review
  • A. Jablensky
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
  • 1987
The diagnosis of schizophrenia accounts today for well over 50% of the 'long-stay' psychiatric hospital populations in many industrialized countries, and extrapolations from the current incidence rates and demographic trends lead to predictions of further increases of the total number of cases by the end of the century, especially in Third World countries.