Scheloribatid Mites as the Source of Pumiliotoxins in Dendrobatid Frogs†

  title={Scheloribatid Mites as the Source of Pumiliotoxins in Dendrobatid Frogs†},
  author={Wataru Takada and Tomoyo Sakata and Satoshi Shimano and Yoshinari Enami and Naoki Mori and Ritsuo Nishida and Yasumasa Kuwahara},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
The strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio (Anura: Dendrobatidae) and related poison frogs contain a variety of dendrobatid alkaloids that are considered to be sequestered through the consumption of alkaloid-containing arthropods microsympatrically distributed in the habitat. In addition to ants, beetles, and millipedes, we found that adults of two species of oribatid mites belonging to the cohort Brachypylina, trophically a lower level of animal than ants and beetles, contain dendrobatid… 

Alkaloids in the Mite Scheloribates laevigatus: Further Alkaloids Common to Oribatid Mites and Poison Frogs

The findings of this study indicate that oribatid mites, and in particular, members of the genus Scheloribates, represent a relatively unexplored arthropod repository for alkaloids and a significant dietary source of alkaloid-containing arthropods in poison frogs.

Indolizidine 239Q and quinolizidine 275I. Major alkaloids in two Argentinian bufonid toads (Melanophryniscus).

Taxonomic distribution of defensive alkaloids in Nearctic oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

  • Ralph A. SaporitoRoy A. NortonMartin H. GarraffoThomas F. Spande
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Experimental and Applied Acarology
  • 2015
The findings are consistent with a generalization that alkaloid presence is widespread, but not universal in Oripodoidea, and all sampled species of the cosmopolitan oripodoid families Scheloribatidae and Parakalummidae, and the related, mostly tropical families Mochlozetidae and Drymobatidae contain alkaloids.

Poor alkaloid sequestration by arrow poison frogs of the genus Phyllobates from Costa Rica.

Alkaloids in Bufonid Toads (Melanophryniscus): Temporal and Geographic Determinants for Two Argentinian Species

The alkaloid profile for Melanophryniscus stelzneri from a location in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, changed significantly over a 10-year period, probably indicating changes in availability of alkaloids from dietary arthropods, and that of M. rubriventris from four locations in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy, Argentina strongly differed.

Once Again: Oribatid Mites and Skin Alkaloids in Poison Frogs

Analysis of skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog and investigated whether geographic variation in alkaloidal profiles correlated with the availability of their arthropod prey, found some substantial errors and misleading interpretations that are important to correct or clarify.

Biosynthesis of linoleic acid in Tyrophagus mites (Acarina: Acaridae).

Chrysomelidial in the Opisthonotal Glands of the Oribatid Mite, Oribotritia berlesei

The chrysomelidials, as well as β-springene and octadecadienal, are newly identified compounds in the opisthonotal glands of oribatid mites and have chemotaxonomic potential for this group.

Individual and Geographic Variation of Skin Alkaloids in Three Swamp-Forest Species of Madagascan Poison Frogs (Mantella)

The present study and an earlier study of three other mantellid species suggest that oribatid mites, and not ants, are the major source of alkaloids in the species of mantellids examined thus far.



Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs.

The presence of pumiliotoxins in formicine ants of the genera Brachymyrmex and Paratrechina, as well as the presence of these ants in the stomach contents of the microsympatric pumiliaotoxin-containing dendrobatid frog, Dendrobates pumilio, support the significance of ant-specialization and alkaloid sequestration in the evolution of bright warning coloration in poison frogs and toads.

Arthropod–Frog Connection: Decahydroquinoline and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Common to Microsympatric Myrmicine Ants and Dendrobatid Frogs

Panamanian poison frogs raised in a large, screened, outdoor cage and provided for six months with leaf-litter from the frog's natural habitat, accumulated a variety of alkaloids into the skin, including two isomers of the ant pyrrolizidine 251K and two isomer of the 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine 195B.

Bioactive alkaloids of frog skin: Combinatorial bioprospecting reveals that pumiliotoxins have an arthropod source

  • J. DalyT. Kaneko M. A. Donnelly
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
“combinatorial bioprospecting” demonstrates that further collection and analysis of individual taxa of leaf-litter arthropods should reveal the taxa from which PTX, alloPTXs, and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines are derived.

Volatile Exudates from the Oribatid Mite, Platynothrus peltifer

The aromatic compound rhizoglyphinyl formate, also known from Astigmata, was found for the first time in extracts of Oribatida, whereas all other compounds have already been reported from other oribatid species.

Evidence for an enantioselective pumiliotoxin 7-hydroxylase in dendrobatid poison frogs of the genus Dendrobates

The evolutionary development of a pumiliotoxin 7-hydroxylase would have provided frogs of the genus Dendrobates with a means of enhancing the antipredator potency of ingested PTXs.

Main alkaloids from the Brazilian dendrobatidae frog Epipedobates flavopictus: pumiliotoxin 251D, histrionicotoxin and decahydroquinolines.

Melyrid beetles (Choresine): a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds.

The presence of high levels of batrachotoxins in a little-studied group of beetles, genus Choresine (family Melyridae), and their high toxin concentrations suggest that they might provide a toxin source for the New Guinea birds.

Opisthonotal gland chemistry of early-derivative oribatid mites (Acari) and its relevance to systematic relationships of Astigmata

Hexane extracts from four outgroup taxa without opisthonotal glands are characterized, providing evidence that Astigmata evolved from within the oribatid mites, at some level above the earliest Mixonomata; it is therefore consistent with the hypothesis that Astigmaata evolved within Desmonomata.

Alkaloid 223A: the first trisubstituted indolizidine from dendrobatid frogs.

The structure of alkaloid 223A (1), the first member of a new class of amphibian alkaloids, purified by HPLC from a skin extract of a Panamanian population of the frog Dendrobates pumilio Schmidt

Further classification of skin alkaloids from neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), with a general survey of toxic/noxious substances in the amphibia.