Scent-marking by coyotes, Canis latrans : the influence of social and ecological factors

@article{Gese1997ScentmarkingBC,
  title={Scent-marking by coyotes,
 Canis latrans
 : the influence of social and ecological factors},
  author={Eric M Gese and Robert L. Ruff},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={1997},
  volume={54},
  pages={1155-1166}
}
  • E. Gese, R. Ruff
  • Published 1 November 1997
  • Environmental Science
  • Animal Behaviour
We observed 49 coyotes, Canis latransfrom five resident packs for 2456 h and five transient coyotes for 51 h from January 1991 to June 1993 in the Lamar River Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. During these observations we recorded 3042 urinations, 451 defecations, 446 ground scratches and 743 double-marks. The rate of scent-marking (via urination) was influenced by the social organization (resident versus transient) to which the coyote belonged, the social class (alpha, beta or… 

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