Scavenger receptor B2 is a cellular receptor for enterovirus 71

  title={Scavenger receptor B2 is a cellular receptor for enterovirus 71},
  author={Seiya Yamayoshi and Yasuko Yamashita and Jifen Li and Nobutaka Hanagata and Takashi Minowa and Taro Takemura and Satoshi Koike},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to human enterovirus species A of the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. EV71, together with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are most frequently associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Although HFMD is considered a mild exanthematous infection, infections involving EV71, but not CVA16, can progress to severe neurological disease, including fatal encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis. In recent years, epidemic and… 
[Identification of an enterovirus 71 receptor; SCARB2].
A human gene, scavenger receptor B2 (SCARB2), integrated in one of the transformant cells by microarray analysis and showed that SCARB2 can serve as a EV71 receptor, which is considered to be a neuropathogenic virus.
Receptors for enterovirus 71
The three-dimensional structures of the mature EV71 virion, procapsid and empty capsid, as well as the exofacial domain of SCARB2, have been elucidated and greatly increased the understanding of the early steps of EV71 infection.
Cellular receptors for enterovirus A71
Although heparan sulfate proteoglycans are expressed by many cultured cell lines and enhance infection by a subset of EV-A71 strains, they are not expressed by cells that express SCARB2 at high levels in vivo and do not contribute to replication or dissemination of the virus in vivo.
Human SCARB2-Mediated Entry and Endocytosis of EV71
The mechanism of EV71 entry through SCARB2 as the receptor for attachment, and its cellular entry is through a clathrin-mediated and pH-dependent endocytic pathway is useful for the development of effective medications and prophylactic treatment against the enterovirus.
Human SCARB2-Dependent Infection by Coxsackievirus A7, A14, and A16 and Enterovirus 71
It was shown that all 162 clinical isolates of EV71 propagated in L-SCARB2 cells, suggesting that SCARB2 is the critical receptor common to all EV71 strains.
Unexpected mode of engagement between enterovirus 71 and its receptor SCARB2
The structure of enterovirus 71 in complex with its receptor SCARB2 provides insights into the mechanism of viral uncoating within the endo/lysosome compartment and identifies few conserved key residues within the binding footprint that might facilitate the design of receptor mimic therapeutics.
Human FcRn Is a Two-in-One Attachment-Uncoating Receptor for Echovirus 18
The findings reveal that FcRn is a two-in-one attachment-uncoating receptor for E18, which is a significant causative agent of aseptic meningitis and viral encephalitis in children and one of the most commonly reported syndromes associated with E18.
Antiviral activity of acid beta-glucosidase 1 on enterovirus 71, a causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease.
A cDNA library screen and identified acid β-glucosidase 1 (GBA1) as an EV71 resistance factor suggest that GBA1 may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of EV71 infection.
Cell and tissue tropism of enterovirus 71 and other enteroviruses infections
A summary of host and virus factors affecting cell and tissue tropism and the pathogenesis of enteroviruses is provided.
Scavenger Receptor B2 as a Receptor for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease and Severe Neurological Diseases
Several lines of evidence suggest that scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) plays critical roles in efficient EV71 infection and the development of disease in humans.


Enterovirus 71 infection: a new threat to global public health?
  • J. Qiu
  • Medicine
    The Lancet Neurology
  • 2008
An overview of the evolution of enterovirus 71 and its clinical and public health significance.
  • P. McMinn
  • Medicine, Biology
    FEMS microbiology reviews
  • 2002
Control of EV71 epidemics through high-level surveillance and public health intervention needs to be maintained and extended throughout the Asia-Pacific region if an effective live-attenuated vaccine is developed.
Pyramidal and extrapyramidal involvement in experimental infection of cynomolgus monkeys with enterovirus 71
The neurovirulence of EV71 is determined by neuropathological analysis of cynomolgus monkeys after experimental infection with five EV71 strains, which were isolated from individual patients with fatal encephalitis; meningitis; and hand, foot, and mouth disease.
An outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan 1998: a comprehensive pathological, virological, and molecular study on a case of fulminant encephalitis.
An epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan. Taiwan Enterovirus Epidemic Working Group.
Although several enteroviruses were circulating in Taiwan during the 1998 epidemic, enterovirus 71 infection was associated with most of the serious clinical manifestations and with nearly all the deaths.
Blockade of the Poliovirus-Induced Cytopathic Effect in Neural Cells by Monoclonal Antibody against Poliovirus or the Human Poliovirus Receptor
The results suggest that neural cells possess protective response mechanisms against PV infection as follows: upon PV infection, neural cells produce a factor(s) to suppress PV internal ribosome entry site activity by 7 hpi, and a factor which supports cap-dependent translation for eIF4G may exist in infected cells when no intact eif4G is detected.
The poliovirus receptor protein is produced both as membrane‐bound and secreted forms.
Predicted amino acid sequences indicate that PVR alpha and PVR delta, corresponding to the previously described cDNA clones H20A and H20B, respectively, are integral membrane proteins while the other two molecules described here for the first time lack a putative transmembrane domain.
Outbreak of Central Nervous System Disease Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Japan during the Summer of 2000: Detection and Molecular Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71
It seemed reasonable to conclude that serious CNS diseases in K‐ area were caused by EV71 because it was the only infectious agent detected in the inpatients of K‐area, and sequenced VP4 coding regions of these EV71 isolates.