Scanning Probe Microscopy

  title={Scanning Probe Microscopy},
  author={Srinivasa M. Salapaka and Murti V. Salapaka},
  journal={IEEE Control Systems},
This article describes new perspectives on SPM-related science and technology, based on systems and control theory. These perspectives have led to a better understanding of SPM technology, overcome hurdles that limited the efficacy of SPM, and resulted in new modes of SPM-based interrogation. ThNcAFM, based on systems principles, has made it possible to image with resolution as high as 0.25 Aring in ambient conditions. The orders-of-magnitude improvements achieved in areas such as precision… Expand
Control-systems based analysis and design methods for scanning probe microscopy
This thesis presents control systems theoretic analysis and synthesis of new modes of operations that significantly expand the range of performance specifications and capabilities of SPMs, and describes a series of control designs which exploit these trade-offs appropriately to achieve pre-specified feasible performance objectives. Expand
A review of scanning methods and control implications for scanning probe microscopy
It is concluded that the most suitable currently known method for high-speed or video-rate AFM imaging is sinusoidal raster scanning, which significantly outperforms the raster, spiral, and Lissajous methods whilst being the simplest to implement. Expand
A comparison of scanning methods and the vertical control implications for scanning probe microscopy
This article compares the imaging performance of non-traditional scanning patterns for scanning probe microscopy including sinusoidal raster, spiral, and Lissajous patterns. The metrics underExpand
Scanning Probe Microscopy, a large family of microscopies, is a sensitive technique with unprecedented resolution. However, the accuracy of the measurement is strongly influenced by the setting andExpand
Optimisation-based adaptive scan for atomic force microscopy imaging
ATOMIC force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in nanotechnology for imaging chemical structures and small biological cells. Unlike scanning electron microscopy, AFM is able to achieve a nanoscaleExpand
Recent advances in high-throughput scanning-probe technology
  • E. Eleftheriou
  • Materials Science
  • 10th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology
  • 2010
Widespread deployment of scanning-probe techniques in applications such as semiconductor metrology, lithography and data storage requires significant improvements in throughput, achievable resolutionExpand
A review of feedforward control approaches in nanopositioning for high-speed spm
Control can enable high-bandwidth nanopositioning needed to increase the operating speed of scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). High-speed SPMs can substantially impact the throughput of a wide rangeExpand
Towards atomic force microscopy measurements using differential self-mixing interferometry
In this paper, we explore the possibility of joining two measurement techniques that share a similar time frame and that are interested in describing the properties of materials through the study ofExpand
High-speed multiresolution scanning probe microscopy based on Lissajous scan trajectories.
A procedure for tuning the spatial and the temporal resolution of Lissajous trajectories is presented and experimental results obtained on a custom-built atomic force microscope (AFM) are shown. Expand
Feedback control of the Atomic Force Microscope micro-cantilever for improved imaging
The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a mechanical microscope capable of producing three-dimensional images of a wide variety of sample surfaces with nanometer precision in air, vacuum, or liquidExpand


Harnessing the transient signals in atomic force microscopy
SUMMARY In the existing dynamic-mode operation of atomic force microscopes (AFMs) steady-state signals like amplitude and phase are used for detection and imaging of material. Due to the high qualityExpand
Sample-profile estimate for fast atomic force microscopy
In this letter, a design scheme that achieves an optimal tip-sample force regulation with an ideal topography image reconstruction is presented. It addresses the problem of obtaining accurate sampleExpand
Transient-signal-based sample-detection in atomic force microscopy
In typical dynamic mode operation of atomic force microscopes, steady state signals like amplitude and phase are used for detection and imaging of material. In these methods, the resolution andExpand
High performance feedback for fast scanning atomic force microscopes
We identify the dynamics of an atomic force microscope (AFM) in order to design a feedback controller that enables faster image acquisition at reduced imaging error compared to the now generallyExpand
A robust control based solution to the sample-profile estimation problem in fast atomic force microscopy
SUMMARY The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool for imaging and manipulating matter at the nanoscale. An optimal control problem is proposed for the control of AFMs which includes theExpand
Quantitative atom-resolved force gradient imaging using noncontact atomic force microscopy
~Received 4 April 2001; accepted for publication 11 June 2001! Quantitative force gradient images are obtained using a sub-angstrom amplitude, off-resonance lever oscillation method during scanningExpand
Nanomechanics Using an Ultra-Small Amplitude AFM
A new type of AFM is presented which allows for direct measurements of nanomechanical properties in ultra-high vacuum and liquid environments. The AFM is also capable of atomic-scale imaging of forceExpand
Robust 2 DOF-control of a piezoelectric tube scanner for high speed atomic force microscopy
The design and implementation of a two-degree-of-freedom (2 DOF) controller on a commercial AFM system is presented enabling topography measurements on the nano-scale at higher scan rates with reduced measurement error. Expand
Principle of NC-AFM
AFM was invented by Binnig [21] and introduced in 1985 by Binnig, Quate and Gerber [22] as an offshoot from the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) [18]. While the STM is an ingenious instrumentExpand
A new control strategy for high-speed atomic force microscopy
An advanced controller consisting of a feedback and feedforward part is presented to improve the performance of an atomic force microscope (AFM) enabling topography measurements at higher scan ratesExpand