Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of Plant Tissues.

  title={Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of Plant Tissues.},
  author={Kirsten Bomblies and Vipula Shukla and Charles Graham},
  journal={CSH protocols},
INTRODUCTIONScanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to produce detailed images of surface structures. This article details the steps required to prepare a sample for SEM. In brief, the sample is fixed, dehydrated, subjected to critical-point drying, mounted, and coated with an electrically conducting material such as gold or palladium.