Scaling effects in caudal fin propulsion and the speed of ichthyosaurs.

Abstract

Four unrelated groups of large cruising vertebrates (tunas, whales, lamnid sharks and parvipelvian ichthyosaurs) evolved tuna-shaped (thunniform) body plans. Stringent physical constraints, imposed by the surrounding fluids, are probably responsible for this example of evolutionary convergence. Here I present a mathematical model of swimming kinematics and… (More)

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@article{Motani2002ScalingEI, title={Scaling effects in caudal fin propulsion and the speed of ichthyosaurs.}, author={Ryosuke Motani}, journal={Nature}, year={2002}, volume={415 6869}, pages={309-12} }