Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

  title={Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London},
  author={Michael Batty and Rui Carvalho and Andrew Hudson-Smith and Richard Milton and D. Smith and Philip Steadman},
  journal={The European Physical Journal B},
Abstract.Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings… 
Urban Allometric Scaling Beneath Structural Fractality of Road Networks
Allometry originally referred to the scaling relationship between the size of a body part and the size of the whole body when an organism grows. Gradually, researchers introduced it into urban
Fractal or Scaling Analysis of Natural Cities Extracted from Open Geographic Data Sources
A city consists of many elements such as humans, buildings, and roads. The complexity of cities is difficult to measure using Euclidean geometry. In this study, we use fractal geometry (scaling
Urban Skylines: building heights and shapes as measures of city size
The shape of buildings plays a critical role in the energy efficiency, lifestyles, land use and infrastructure systems of cities. Thus, as most of the world's cities continue to grow and develop,
Quantifying the Differences in Geometry and Size Distributions of Buildings Within Cities
There have been many studies on the spatial configuration of cities, but few attempts to quantify the difference in building patterns between the old and new parts of cities. This may be partly
Understanding the mesoscopic scaling patterns within cities
Analytical and numerical results suggest that, despite the large number of complexities that influence urban activities, the simple interaction rules can effectively explain the observed regularity and heterogeneity in scaling behaviors within cities.
Competition in the Built Environment: Scaling Laws for Cities, Neighbourhoods and Buildings
Built environments at any spatial scale are represented as sets of like objects—cities, neighbourhoods, buildings but also components such as streets, parks, etc.,—which are distributed spatially
Understanding Chinese Urban Form: The Universal Fractal Pattern of Street Networks over 298 Cities
The results show that almost all cities bear a fractal structure in terms of street connectivities, and the multiple regression analysis suggests that the fractality of street networks is positively correlated with urban socioeconomic status and negatively correlated with energy consumption.
Exploring Allometric Scaling Relations between Fractal Dimensions of Metro Networks and Economic, Environmental and Social Indicators: A Case Study of 26 Cities in China
It was found that fractal dimensions of metro networks had positive allometric relations with gross domestic product (GDP), population, particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns, which implies that allometric Relations do exist with metro networks, which is helpful in deepening the understanding of how metro systems interact with urban quantities in the self-organized evolution of cities.


Scaling laws in the spatial structure of urban road networks
Allometry and built form: revisiting Ranko Bon's work with the Harvard Philomorphs
Ranko Bon's work is revisited from a theoretical point of view, using a new method for representing large numbers of theoretical but realistic built forms, all derived from a single ‘archetypal building’.
Hierarchy in Cities and City Systems
Hierarchy is implicit in the very term city. Cities grow from hamlets and villages into small towns and thence into larger forms such as ‘metropolis’, ‘megalopolis’ and world cities which are
Scaling and universality in the micro-structure ofurban space
Cities as Organisms: Allometric Scaling of Urban Road Networks
The approach presented here offers a novel macroscopic perspective on the differences between small and large cities and on how the road infrastructure and traffic might change as cities grow.
Scaling laws in urban supply networks
Cities and complexity - understanding cities with cellular automata, agent-based models, and fractals
In Cities and Complexity, Michael Batty offers a comprehensive view of urban dynamics in the context of complexity theory, presenting models that demonstrate how complexity theory can embrace a myriad of processes and elements that combine into organic wholes.
Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities
Empirical evidence is presented indicating that the processes relating urbanization to economic development and knowledge creation are very general, being shared by all cities belonging to the same urban system and sustained across different nations and times.
Scaling laws and the modern city
The fourth dimension of life: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms.
Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension, and design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.