Scale-Adjusted Metrics for Predicting the Evolution of Urban Indicators and Quantifying the Performance of Cities

  title={Scale-Adjusted Metrics for Predicting the Evolution of Urban Indicators and Quantifying the Performance of Cities},
  author={Luiz G. A. Alves and Renio S. Mendes and Ervin Kaminski Lenzi and Haroldo V. Ribeiro},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
More than a half of world population is now living in cities and this number is expected to be two-thirds by 2050. Fostered by the relevancy of a scientific characterization of cities and for the availability of an unprecedented amount of data, academics have recently immersed in this topic and one of the most striking and universal finding was the discovery of robust allometric scaling laws between several urban indicators and the population size. Despite that, most governmental reports and… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Socio-economic urban scaling properties: Influence of regional geographic heterogeneities in Brazil

Scaling analysis suggests that distinct political solutions might be necessary to improve life’s quality, even for two regions with similar average values of urban indicators, despite all huge different local influences.

Estimating the drivers of urban economic complexity and their connection to economic performance

A model is derived that indicates how the value of these three quantities can be inferred from the probability that an individual in a city is employed in a given urban activity, which can provide testable implications for why some cities are more prosperous than others.

Scaling of urban amenities: generative statistics and implications for urban planning

Cities have been extensively studied as complex adaptive systems over the last 50 years. Recently, several empirical studies and emerging theory provided support for the fact that many different

Urban Development Index (UDI): A Comparison between the City of Rio de Janeiro and Four Other Global Cities

The research aims to quantify, compare and evaluate the level of urban development of Rio de Janeiro, performing benchmarking with other four global cities (Stockholm, Shanghai, Boston, and Cape Town).

Urban scaling in Europe

It is shown that while most large urban systems in Western Europe approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions, and a simple statistical procedure is demonstrated to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities.

On the relation between transversal and longitudinal scaling in cities

It is found that longitudinal scaling exponents are city-specific, however, they are distributed around an average value that approaches the transversal scaling exponent provided that the data is decomposed to eliminate external factors, and only for cities with a sufficiently high growth rate.

The drivers of urban economic complexity and their connection to urban economic performance

Is urban economic performance driven by a few factors? We study a simple model for the probability that an individual in a city is employed in a given urban activity. The theory posits that three

Urban geography and scaling of contemporary Indian cities

A first comprehensive analysis of the integrated characteristics of contemporary Indian cities, using scaling and geographical analysis over a set of diverse indicators, to characterize patterns of urban population density, infrastructure, urban services, crime and technological innovation.

Urban Scaling and Its Deviations: Revealing the Structure of Wealth, Innovation and Crime across Cities

It is found that local urban dynamics display long-term memory, so cities under or outperforming their size expectation maintain such (dis)advantage for decades.

The Statistics of Urban Scaling and Their Connection to Zipf’s Law

A self-consistent statistical framework is built that characterizes the joint probability distributions of urban indicators and city population sizes across an urban system and shows that scaling laws emerge as expectation values of these conditional statistics.

Distance to the Scaling Law: A Useful Approach for Unveiling Relationships between Crime and Urban Metrics

It is argued that it is better to employ logarithms in order to describe the number of homicides in function of the urban metrics via regression analysis, and an approach to correlate crime and urban metrics is proposed via the evaluation of the distance between the actual value and the value that is expected by the scaling law with the population size.

Large cities are less green

A superlinear scaling behavior is found between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US, suggesting that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities.

Urban Scaling and the Production Function for Cities

It is empirically demonstrated that there is a systematic dependence of urban productivity on city population size, resulting from the mismatch between the size dependence of wages and labor, so that in contemporary US cities productivity increases by about 11% with each doubling of their population.

Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities

Empirical evidence is presented indicating that the processes relating urbanization to economic development and knowledge creation are very general, being shared by all cities belonging to the same urban system and sustained across different nations and times.

The Origins of Scaling in Cities

All cities may evolve according to a small set of basic principles that operate locally, which are shown to be independent of city size and might be a useful means to evaluate urban planning strategies.

The dynamics of global urban expansion

This study examined the dynamics of global urban expansion by defining a new universe of 3,943 cities with population in excess of 100,000 and drawing a stratified global sample of 120 cities from

The hypothesis of urban scaling: formalization, implications and challenges

There is strong expectation that cities, across time, culture and level of development, share much in common in terms of their form and function. Recently, attempts to formalize mathematically these

How congestion shapes cities: from mobility patterns to scaling

A stochastic theory of urban growth is proposed which accounts for some of the observed scalings and suggests that diseconomies associated with congestion scale superlinearly with population size, implying that cities whose transportation infrastructure rely heavily on traffic sensitive modes are unsustainable.