author={Alfonso J. Cruz-Jentoft and Avan Aihie Sayer},
  journal={The Lancet},

Understanding of sarcopenia: from definition to therapeutic strategies.

The definition of sarcopenia is presented and recent understanding on the detailed mechanisms, diagnostic criteria, and strategies for prevention and treatment are summarized.

Sarcopenia: assessment of disease burden and strategies to improve outcomes

Because sarcopenia is associated with important adverse health outcomes, such as frailty, hospitalization, and mortality, several therapeutic strategies have been identified that involve exercise training, nutritional supplementation, hormonal therapies, and novel strategies and are still under investigation.

Sarcopenia: A Contemporary Health Problem among Older Adult Populations

The prevalence of sarcopenia in older adults, its etiology, prevention, and treatment techniques are reported, and physical activity and nutrition are the main studied ways to prevent sarc Openia.

Efficacy of Nutritional Interventions as Stand-Alone or Synergistic Treatments with Exercise for the Management of Sarcopenia

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the role of proteins and other key nutrients, alone or in combination with physical exercise, on muscle parameters.

Sarcopenia: imaging assessment and clinical application

The clinical implications of sarcopenia, how this condition can be assessed through different imaging modalities, and future perspectives of imaging of sarc Openia are reviewed.

Development of Pharmacotherapies for the Treatment of Sarcopenia

A review of the leading programs and approaches, available findings from recent studies, and several related issues needed to facilitate the development of a safe and efficacious pharmacotherapeutic that could be used as part of a treatment plan for older men and women with sarcopenia are discussed.



Sarcopenia and frailty: new challenges for clinical practice.

There is overlap between the two conditions, especially in terms of the physical aspects of the frailty phenotype: low grip strength, gait speed and muscle mass.

Epidemiology of sarcopenia and insight into possible therapeutic targets

In this review, the current approaching for defining sarcopenia is considered and its epidemiology, pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic opportunities are discussed.

Clinical Screening Tools for Sarcopenia and Its Management

This review paper examined the screening tools and interventions for sarcopenia and found no consensus on the best tool.

Biomarkers for Sarcopenia: Reductionism vs. Complexity.

This review summarizes the current knowledge on biological markers for sarcopenia, including a critical appraisal of traditional procedures for biomarker development in the field of muscle aging, and illustrates the potential advantages of biomarker discovery procedures based on multivariate methodologies.

Sarcopenia: an overview

The “Sarcopenia and Physical fRailty IN older people: multi-componenT Treatment strategies” project has operationalized a specific condition, named physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S), characterized by the combination of low physical performance and low muscle mass.

Advances in research on pharmacotherapy of sarcopenia

This article focuses on the latest progress in pharmacotherapeutic approaches of sarcopenia in recent years by comprehensively reviewing the clinical outcomes of the existing and emerging pharmacotherapies as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic benefits and side effects.

Biochemical Pathways of Sarcopenia and Their Modulation by Physical Exercise: A Narrative Review

The effects of exercise on relevant signaling pathways involved in sarcopenia pathophysiology are described and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are not yet fully identified.

The developmental origins of sarcopenia

The place of physical activity and resistance exercise training as the most effective intervention to slow loss is widely accepted and has been widely accepted.

Current pharmacotherapies for sarcopenia

This review highlights the current state of knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms contributing to the age-related loss of muscle mass and function and provides a summary of existing and emerging pharmacotherapies in clinical trials for sarcopenia.