Sarcopenia: The Role of poptosis and Modulation by Caloric Restriction

  title={Sarcopenia: The Role of poptosis and Modulation by Caloric Restriction},
  author={Amie J Dirks Naylor and Christiaan Leeuwenburgh},
  journal={Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews},
The mechanisms of sarcopenia have been slowly unraveled and likely involve activation of apoptosis. It is hypothesized that caloric restriction may, in part, attenuate sarcopenia by affecting apoptotic signaling. The signaling pathways responsible for the execution of apoptosis in aging muscle and the modulation of these pathways by caloric restriction are discussed. 
Sarcopenia, implications of physical exercise in its pathophysiology. prevention and treatment
Resumen en: Sarcopenia is known as a progressive muscle wasting produced as years accumulate and characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, inc...
Sarcopenia: Its assessment, etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and future perspectives
On-going and future clinical trials on sarcopenia may radically change the authors' preventive and therapeutic approaches of mobility disability in older people.
Usefulness of preclinical models for assessing the efficacy of late-life interventions for sarcopenia.
A conceptual framework for the ever-changing definition of sarcopenia and a rationale for the use of an appropriate rodent model of this condition are provided.
Muscle wasting in cancer and ageing: cachexia versus sarcopenia.
In conclusion, more research should be devoted to the understanding of muscle wasting mediators, both in cancer and ageing, in particular the identification of common mediators may prove as a good therapeutic strategy for both prevention and treatment of wasting both in disease and during healthy ageing.
Nuclear Apoptosis and Sarcopenia
A few studies have shown data to suggest that the endoplasmic reticulum-stress apoptotic pathway may also have a role in sarcopenia, although the importance of this pathway relative to the other two pathways is less clear.
Mitochondrial apoptotic signaling is elevated in cardiac but not skeletal muscle in the obese Zucker rat and is reduced with aerobic exercise.
The data show that mitochondrial apoptosis is elevated in the cardiac but not skeletal muscles of the OZR, but aerobic exercise training was effective in reducing cardiac mitochondrial apoptotic signaling.
Invertebrate models of age-related muscle degeneration.
Markers of degeneration and regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
The results indicate that Fas/FasL and Bax/Bcl-2 are involved in muscle atrophy and degeneration in DMD patients, while regeneration process does not cope with the degeneration.


Muscle fiber‐specific apoptosis and TNF‐α signaling in sarcopenia are attenuated by life‐long calorie restriction
  • T. Phillips, C. Leeuwenburgh
  • Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2005
TNF‐α signals transmitted to specific fiber types determine the decision of selecting life or death signaling pathways and are linked to the extent of fiber loss experienced in the aging muscle, suggesting a major proponent in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia.
The Healthcare Costs of Sarcopenia in the United States
Objectives: To estimate the healthcare costs of sarcopenia in the United States and to examine the effect that a reduced sarcopenia prevalence would have on healthcare expenditures.
Apoptosis: a mechanism contributing to remodeling of skeletal muscle in response to hindlimb unweighting.
The data suggest that 1) "programmed nuclear death" contributes to the elimination of myonuclei and/or satellite cells from atrophying fibers, and 2) GH/IGF-I administration plus muscle loading ameliorates the apoptosis associated with hindlimb unloading.
The thioredoxin system in aging muscle: key role of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in the protective effects of caloric restriction?
Age-related aging is associated with a TrxR2 reduction in skeletal muscle and heart, which enhances susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli but is renormalized after short-term caloric restriction.
Exercise training attenuates age-induced changes in apoptotic signaling in rat skeletal muscle.
The results indicate that treadmill exercise training attenuates fiber atrophy and pro-apoptotic signaling in aging skeletal muscle.
Life-long calorie restriction in Fischer 344 rats attenuates age-related loss in skeletal muscle-specific force and reduces extracellular space.
A loss of muscle function with age is shown and a significant correlation between the extracellular space and the muscle-specific force in the extensor digitorum longus (r = -0.58; P < 0.05) is found, suggesting that long-term calorie restriction is an effective intervention against the loss of Muscle Function with age.
Molecular regulation of apoptosis in fast plantaris muscles of aged rats.
The data suggest that a pro-apoptotic environment may contribute to aging-associated atrophy in fast skeletal muscle, but apoptotic signaling differs by age.
Contributions of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway and apoptosis to human skeletal muscle wasting with age
A preferential role for apoptosis is indicated contributing to decreases in muscle function with age, as well as muscle strength, which was significantly lower in old compared to young subjects.