Same-sex sexual behavior in insects and arachnids: prevalence, causes, and consequences

@article{Scharf2013SamesexSB,
  title={Same-sex sexual behavior in insects and arachnids: prevalence, causes, and consequences},
  author={Inon Scharf and Oliver Yves Martin},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2013},
  volume={67},
  pages={1719-1730}
}
Same-sex sexual (SSS) behavior represents an evolutionary puzzle: whilst associated costs seem obvious, positive contributions to fitness remain unclear. Various adaptive explanations have been proposed and thorough reviews exist for vertebrates, but a thorough synthesis of causes for SSS behavior in invertebrates is lacking. Here we provide evidence for such behavior in ~110 species of insects and arachnids. Males are more frequently involved in SSS behavior in the laboratory than in the field… 

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