A 35-year-old man developed salmonella pleural empyema during a three-month illness. Cultures of the empyema fluid yielded S enteritidis, serotype typhimurium. Cure was achieved by decortication and obliteration of the pleural empyema space, in combination with chloramphenicol therapy given parenterally. Review of the published reports revealed eight similar instances of salmonella empyema. Manifestations and treatment of this group are reviewed.