Salivary Biochemistry of the Healthy Oral Ecosystem

Abstract

The studies presented in this thesis were funded by Top Institude Food and Nutrition, a public-private partnership in pre-competitive research. Introduction 7 CHAPTER 2 Interindividual variation, correlations, and sex-related differences in the salivary biochemistry of young healthy adults 21 CHAPTER 3 A study of the variation in the salivary peptide profiles of young healthy adults acquired using MALDI-TOF 47 CHAPTER 4 On the ecosystemic network of the salivary microbiome in healthy young adults 75 CHAPTER 5 Effect of experimental gingivitis induction and erythritol on the salivary metabolome and functional biochemistry of systemically healthy young adults 111 CHAPTER 6 Effect of experimental gingivitis induction and erythritol on the salivary MALDI-TOF-MS peptide profiles of systemically healthy young adults 141 CHAPTER 7 Summarizing discussion 153 Acknowledgements 165 CHAPTER 1 Introduction Chapter 1 8 The oral ecosystem in health and disease: homeostasis and dysbiosis A healthy mouth is necessary for a number of important functions such as chewing, speech, taste and social interactions [1]. The human oral cavity displays a unique set of environmental conditions and is home to a complex community of microorganisms [1-5]. This resident microflora is constantly modulated by intrinsic, host-related factors (e.g. saliva, host immune cells) and extrinsic factors (e.g. food particles, xenobiotics, oral hygiene measures). The oral ecosystem is more stable compared to those from other ecological niches in or on the human body [6, 7]. Its microbial composition is better maintained across time under normal conditions and is more resilient to challenges (such as treatment with antibiotics) compared to the gut microbiome [6]. The oral microbiota shows less deviation and recovers faster than the gut, skin, or vaginal microflora [6, 7]. In spite of the aforementioned relative stability of the oral ecosystem, dysbiosis may occur and exert potentially severe negative effects on oral health. Dental caries and periodontitis – the most frequent oral diseases – do not fit the model of single microbe pathogenesis, but may rather be viewed as resulting from severe dysbiosis occurring within the mouth [4]. Dental caries is a multifactorial disease involving excessive demineralization and subsequent localized destruction of tooth hard tissue [8]. Cycles of demineralization and remineralization continuously occur under normal conditions, but certain factors may permanently upset this equilibrium and tilt the process towards an irreversible degradation of tooth structure (Fig. 1). Introduction 9 Figure 1. Illustration of ecological pressures altering the composition of oral microflora leading to oral disease (in this …

Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Prodan2016SalivaryBO, title={Salivary Biochemistry of the Healthy Oral Ecosystem}, author={Andrei Prodan}, year={2016} }