Salicylic acid activates artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

  title={Salicylic acid activates artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.},
  author={Gao Pu and Dongming Ma and Jianlin Chen and Lanqing Ma and Hong Wang and Guo-feng Li and He-chun Ye and Benye Liu},
  journal={Plant Cell Reports},
This paper provides evidence that salicylic acid (SA) can activate artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. Exogenous application of SA to A. annua leaves was followed by a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the conversion of dihydroartemisinic acid into artemisinin. In the 24 h after application, SA application led to a gradual increase in the expression of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene and a temporary peak in the expression of the amorpha-4,11… 

Enhancement of artemisinin content and biomass in Artemisia annua by exogenous GA3 treatment

It is shown that exogenous GA3 treatment enhanced artemisinin production in pot experiments and should be suitable for field application.

Strategies for Enhancing Artemisinin Production in Artemisia annua Under Changing Environment

Using pot and field experiments, some PGRs and radiation-processed polysaccharides proved as non-conventional elicitors that enhanced the overall yield of artemisinin under normal and abiotic stress conditions.

Methyl jasmonate and miconazole differently affect arteminisin production and gene expression in Artemisia annua suspension cultures.

In this study, A. annua suspension cultures were established in order to investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and miconazole on artemisinin biosynthesis and the influence of these treatments on expression of biosynthetic genes was investigated.

The stacked over-expression of FPS, CYP71AV1 and CPR genes leads to the increase of artemisinin level in Artemisia annua L.

Three key genes in the artemisinin biosynthesis pathway, encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase, amorpha-4, 11-diene C-12 oxidase and its redox partner cytochrome P450 reductase, were over-expressed in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and demonstrate that multigene engineering is an effective way to enhance art Artemisinin content in the plant.

Effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate and 2-isopentenyladenine on artemisinin production and gene expression in Artemisia annua

The results indicate that the negative feedback mechanism of art Artemisinin is likely an obstacle for the selection of biotechnological strategies to increase artemisinin content and may be overcome by studying the role of trichome in artemis inin production as a step toward achieving high yields of this valuable component.

Successes of artemisinin elicitation in low-artemisinin producing Artemisia annua cell cultures constrained by repression of biosynthetic genes

Insight is provided into the complexity of stress-induced responses of A. annua cell suspension cultures in relation to metabolic processes (transportation, accumulation and degradation of secondary products) which are important for artemisinin formation.

Time-course analysis of the artemisinin biosynthesis, and expression of genes coding for artemisinin pathway enzymes, in response to exogenous salicylic and gibberellic acids

Both SA and GA3 exogenous applications can increase artemisinin accumulation in different ways and it is critical to determine the best harvesting time to achieve high- yield Artemisia plants.

Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Associated with the Artemisinin Biosynthesis by Jasmonic Acid Treatment under the Light in Artemisia annua

It is found that the increase of artemisinin biosynthesis by JA was dependent on light, and the transcriptome data offered a comprehensive transcriptional expression pattern influenced by the MeJA and light in A. annua seedling.



Functional genomics and the biosynthesis of artemisinin.

The Molecular Cloning of Artemisinic Aldehyde Δ11(13) Reductase and Its Role in Glandular Trichome-dependent Biosynthesis of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua*

In an effort to understand double bond reduction in artemisinin biosynthesis, extracts of A. annua flower buds were investigated and found to contain artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) double bond reductase activity and the corresponding gene Dbr2, encoding a member of the enoate reduct enzyme family with similarity to plant 12-oxophytodienoates, was found to be highly expressed in glandular trichomes.

Identification of intermediates and enzymes involved in the early steps of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

It is hypothesised that the early steps in artemisinin biosynthesis involve amorpha-4,11-diene hydroxylation to artemisinic alcohol, followed by oxidation toArtemisinic aldehyde, reduction of the C11-C13 double bond to dihydroartemisinicAldehyde and oxidation to diHydroart Artemisinic acid.

Trichome dynamics and artemisinin accumulation during development and senescence of Artemisia annua leaves.

The results suggest that a (putative) intermediate such as dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide temporarily may have accumulated in considerable quantities in artemisinin accumulation during the development of individual leaves.

Nutrient deficiency in the production of artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, and artemisinic acid in Artemisia annua L.

  • J. Ferreira
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • 2007
There was a positive and significant correlation between artemisinin and both artemisinic acid and dihydroartemisin acid, in g/100 g and g/plant, and this is the first report where potassium deficiency significantly increases the concentration of artemis inin.

Seasonal variation of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in plants of Artemisia annua of different geographical origin: proof for the existence of chemotypes.

The time course of the levels of artemisinin, its biosynthetic precursors and the biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes was monitored during a vegetation period of Artemisia annua plants of different geographical origin to suggest the presence of high levels of dihydroartemisinic acid may be an adaptation to stress conditions.

Evidence of artemisinin production from IPP stemming from both the mevalonate and the nonmevalonate pathways

Results indicate that artemisinin is probably biosynthesized from IPP pools from both the plastid and the cytosol, and that carbon from competing pathways can be channeled toward sesquiterpenes.