Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action

@article{Lopresti2014SaffronS,
  title={Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action},
  author={Adrian L. Lopresti and Peter D. Drummond},
  journal={Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental},
  year={2014},
  volume={29},
  pages={517 - 527}
}
BACKGROUND Saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, has now undergone several trials examining its antidepressant effects and, in a recent meta-analysis, was confirmed to be effective for the treatment of major depression. [] Key MethodDESIGN In the systematic review of clinical trials, electronic databases were searched for high-quality, randomised, double-blind studies, with placebo or antidepressant controls.
A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on depression and food craving among overweight women with mild to moderate depression
TLDR
Evaluating the effects of saffron capsules on food craving, body weight and depression among overweight women with mild and moderate depression compared to the placebo found them to be beneficial.
Saffron and depression
TLDR
Throughout the centuries, people have used the dried stigma of Crocus sativus that is known as "saffron" for medicinal and nutritional purposes and its bioactive compounds play a crucial role in the central nervous system to positively affect conditions such as anxiety and depression.
The efficacy of Crocus sativus (Saffron) versus placebo and Fluoxetine in treating depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis
TLDR
Saffron administration was well comparable with Fluoxetine and placebo in the treatment of depressed patients, and in both sensitivity analyses, the results did not statistically change, confirming the stability of the findings.
Safety and Efficacy of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for Treating Mild to Moderate Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
TLDR
Saffron could be considered as an alternative to synthetic antidepressants in the treatment of mild to moderate depression, however, multicenter trials with larger sample size, longer treatment duration, and different ethnic groups are required to verify the results.
The therapeutic potential of Crocus sativus Linn.: A comprehensive narrative review of clinical trials.
TLDR
The present results can provide important insights into the potential of saffron in preventing and treating different disorders, with a special focus on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms.
Therapeutic Potential of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Ischemia Stroke
TLDR
Saffron and its ingredients could be a potent candidate in the process of new drug production for the treatment of ischemia stroke through inhibition of biochemical, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers.
Effect of saffron supplementation on symptoms of depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
TLDR
Saffron could be an effective intervention for symptoms of depression and anxiety; however, due to evidence of publication bias and lack of regional diversity, further trials are required.
Antianhedonic and Antidepressant Effects of Affron®, a Standardized Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) Extract
TLDR
An animal model of depression based on social isolation is used to assess the effects of affron®, a standardized saffron extract containing ≥3.5% of total bioactive compounds safranal and crocin isomers, and data support a beneficial role for oral saffrons in anxious/depressive states.
Nutritional and health beneficial properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L): a comprehensive review
TLDR
This plant and its active compounds could be a beneficial medicinal food ingredient in the formation of drugs targeting nervous system disorders, and multiple preclinical and clinical studies have supported neuroprotective, anxiolytic, antidepressant, learning and memory-enhancing effect of saffron and its bioactive constituents.
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References

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Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double‐blind, randomised and placebo‐controlled trial
TLDR
This double‐blind and placebo‐controlled trial investigated whether saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) could relieve symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
TLDR
Larger clinical trials, conducted by research teams outside of Iran, with long-term follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be made regarding saffron's efficacy and safety for treating depressive symptoms.
Saffron for treatment of fluoxetine‐induced sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double‐blind placebo‐controlled study
TLDR
The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of saffron on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor‐induced sexual dysfunction in women.
Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double‐blind, randomized and placebo‐controlled trial
TLDR
The objective was to assess the efficacy of the stigmas of Crocus sativus (saffron) in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in a 6‐week double‐blind, placebo‐controlled and randomized trial.
ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFECT OF KAEMPFEROL, A CONSTITUENT OF SAFFRON (CROCUS SATIVUS) PETAL, IN MICE AND RATS
TLDR
It is confirmed that kaempferol intraperitoneally reduced immobility in mice and rats.
Crocus sativus L.
TLDR
Xihonghua, Stigma Croci, is the dry stigmata of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of hematoma, menostasis, melancholia, and convulsion, and as a sedative.
Saffron in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a 16‐week, randomized and placebo‐controlled trial
TLDR
Crocus sativus (saffron) may inhibit the aggregation and deposition of amyloid β in the human brain and may therefore be useful in Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Petal and Stigma of Crocus sativus L. in the Treatment of Depression: A Pilot Double - blind Randomized Trial
TLDR
Petal of Crocus sativus was found to be effective similar to stigma ofCrocus satvus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in a 6-week pilot double-blind randomized trial.
Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus.
TLDR
Therapeutic uses of saffron principles with particular regard to those exhibiting antioxidant and thus anti-inflammatory features are discussed and at high doses (more than 5 g/die day), it should be avoided in pregnancy owing to its uterine stimulation activity.
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