Safety of meloxicam to critically endangered Gyps vultures and other scavenging birds in India

  title={Safety of meloxicam to critically endangered Gyps vultures and other scavenging birds in India},
  author={Devendra Swarup and R. C. Patra and Vibhu M. Prakash and Richard J. Cuthbert and Devojit Das and Percy Avari and Deborah J. Pain and Rhys. E. Green and A. Sharma and Mitu Saini and Devojit Das and Mark A. Taggart},
  journal={Animal Conservation},
Widespread veterinary use of the non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug diclofenac is responsible for the population collapse of three species of Gyps vulture in south Asia; these species are now critically endangered. Vultures die when they consume carcasses of livestock that contain lethal residues of diclofenac. National and international conservation organizations have urgently recommended that diclofenac be banned and replaced with alternative drugs that are relatively safe to Gyps vultures… 

Diclofenac is toxic to the Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis

Experimental testing has established that diclofenac is toxic to four species of vultures in the genus Gyps, but information on the toxicity of dicL ofenac to other members of the genus is lacking.

Analysis of nine NSAIDs in ungulate tissues available to critically endangered vultures in India.

If wild Gyps on the Indian subcontinent are to survive, diclofenac bans must be completely effective, and NSAIDs that replace it within the veterinary drug market must be of low toxicity toward Gyps and other scavenging birds.

Continuing mortality of vultures in India associated with illegal veterinary use of diclofenac and a potential threat from nimesulide

The proportion of Gyps vultures found dead in the wild in India showed a modest and non-significant decline since the ban on the veterinary use of diclofenac, and Veterinary use of nimesulide is a potential threat to the recovery of vulture populations.

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide kills Gyps vultures at concentrations found in the muscle of treated cattle

It is called for an immediate and comprehensive ban of nimesulide throughout South Asia to ensure the survival of the region’s Critically Endangered vultures.

Residues of Diclofenac in Tissues of Vultures in India: A Post-ban Scenario

Studies have indicated that diclofenac can continue to kill vultures even after its ban in India for veterinary use, and it is possible that 14 of 29 white-backed vulture and 9 of 12 Himalayan griffon included in this study died due to dicL ofenac poisoning.

Potential threat to Eurasian griffon vultures in Spain from veterinary use of the drug diclofenac

A precautionary ban on the veterinary use of diclofenac in Spain is justified and a programme of monitoring of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug contamination of ungulate carcasses available to vultures and of moribund and dead obligate and facultative avian scavengers would be needed to be confident that a damaging level of contamination is not present.

The conservation of Accipitridae vultures of Nepal: a review

Of the nine Accipitridae vulture species found within Nepal the IUCN categorises White-rumped, Indian Vulture, Slender-billed and Red-headed Vultures as Critically Endangered and Egyptian Vulture as

Diclofenac Approval as a Threat to Spanish Vultures

It is undeniable that European vulture populations could be seriously affected by the ingestion of diclofenac, and its use has become a matter of great concern for ecologists, politicians, and conservationists.

Trends in the availability of the vulture-toxic drug, diclofenac, and other NSAIDs in South Asia, as revealed by covert pharmacy surveys

The availability of diclofenac declined in all three countries, virtually disappearing from pharmacies in Nepal and Bangladesh, highlighting the advances made in these two countries to reduce this threat to vultures.

Assessing the ongoing threat from veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to Critically Endangered Gyps vultures in India

To provide a safer environment for vultures in South Asia, it is recommended to reduce the size of vials of diclofenac meant for human use, to increase the costs of illegal veterinary use, and taking action against pharmaceutical manufacturers and pharmacies flouting the dicL ofenac ban.



Removing the Threat of Diclofenac to Critically Endangered Asian Vultures

It is concluded that meloxicam is of low toxicity toGyps vultures and that its use in place of diclofenac would reduce vulture mortality substantially in the Indian subcontinent.

NSAIDs and scavenging birds: potential impacts beyond Asia's critically endangered vultures

The relative safety of meloxicam supports other studies indicating the suitability of this NSAID to replace diclofenac in Asia, and suggests that the potential conservation impact of NSAIDs may extend beyond Gyps vultures and could be significant for New World vultURES.

Toxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures

It is suggested that diclofenac is likely to be toxic to all eight Gyps species, and that G. africanus, which is phylogenetically close to G. bengalensis, would be a suitable surrogate for the safety testing of alternative drugs to diclotenac.

Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent

It is recommended that urgent action is taken in the range states of the three currently threatened vulture species to prevent the exposure of vultures to livestock carcasses contaminated with diclofenac.

Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan

Results are provided that directly correlate residues of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac with renal failure and renal failure in the Oriental white-backed vulture (OWBV) and it is proposed that residues of veterinary diclotenac are responsible for the OWBV decline.

Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent

It is shown that a high proportion of Gyps bengalensis and G. indicus found dead or dying in a much larger area of India and Nepal also have residues of diclofenac and visceral gout, a post–mortem finding that is strongly associated with dic-of-enac contamination in both species, suggesting veterinary use of dIClofy is likely to have been the major cause of the rapid vulture population declines across the subcontinent.

Rapid population declines of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and red‐headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) in India

Analysis of repeated surveys in and near protected areas widely spread across India shows that populations of two other vulture species, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus and red-headed vulture Sarcogyps calvus, have also declined markedly and rapidly, but probably with a later onset than Gyps vultures in the same region.

Clinical efficacy of meloxicam (Metacam) and flunixin (Finadyne) as adjuncts to antibacterial treatment of respiratory disease in fattening cattle.

It is concluded that a single subcutaneous dose of meloxicam was as clinically effective as up to 3 consecutive daily intravenous doses of flunixin meglumine when used as an adjunctive therapy to antibacterial therapy in the treatment of acute febrile respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in south africa and possible effects on vultures

A research project, to determine whether South African vultures are equally susceptible to diclofenac and other NSAIDs, has recently been launched.

Breeding and mortality of Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan

Investigation of breeding success and pattern of mortality in two vulture colonies within Punjab Province, Pakistan between December 2000 and June 2001 implies that the mortality factor responsible for the decline in Gyps vultures described in India is also present in Pakistan and will potentially lead to a population decline of a comparable magnitude.