Safety of Cotinine in Humans: Physiologic, Subjective, and Cognitive Effects

@article{Hatsukami1997SafetyOC,
  title={Safety of Cotinine in Humans: Physiologic, Subjective, and Cognitive Effects},
  author={Dorothy K. Hatsukami and M Grillo and Paul R. Pentel and Cheryl Oncken and Robin L. Bliss},
  journal={Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior},
  year={1997},
  volume={57},
  pages={643-650}
}
Effects of cotinine on cigarette self-administration
TLDR
Cotinine appears potentially to have a selective modulatory effect on nicotine withdrawal symptoms but not on cigarette smoking.
Cotinine: effects with and without nicotine
TLDR
Cotinine appears to antagonize the effects of nicotine in the alleviation of withdrawal symptoms at concentrations higher than that attained from normal smoking, which does not appear to be mediated by changes in nicotine disposition.
Lack of effect of 5HT3 antagonist in mediating subjective and behavioral responses to cotinine
TLDR
There was a near but nonsignificant difference among groups on a measure of tobacco withdrawal and no significant differences on global measures of drug effects or physiological measures, which do not strongly support the hypothesis that 5HT(3) agonism is the mechanism by which cotinine offsets the effects of nicotine.
Cotinine, a neuroactive metabolite of nicotine: potential for treating disorders of impaired cognition.
TLDR
Based on its relative safety in man, cotinine should prove useful in the treatment of diseases of impaired cognition and behavior without exhibiting the toxicity usually attributed to nicotine.
Clinical pharmacology of oral cotinine.
TLDR
It is concluded that administration of oral cotinine with measurement in saliva samples is easy, safe, and provides an accurate estimate of systemic clearance and half-life of cotinines.
Effects of high dose transdermal nicotine replacement in cigarette smokers
New Insights into the Mechanisms of Action of Cotinine and its Distinctive Effects from Nicotine
TLDR
The effects of cotinine are reviewed, including comparisons with nicotine, and potential mechanisms of c nicotine-specific actions in the central nervous system which are, to date, still being elucidated are discussed.
Disconnection between activation and desensitization of autonomic nicotinic receptors by nicotine and cotinine
TLDR
The results illustrate the disconnection between nicotinic receptor activation and receptor desensitization, and they suggest that cotinine's pharmacological actions are either mediated through partial desensItization, or through non-ganglionic subtypes of Nicotinic receptors.
Cotinine: Beyond that Expected, More than a Biomarker of Tobacco Consumption
TLDR
New evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 23 REFERENCES
Pharmacodynamic effects of cotinine in abstinent cigarette smokers
TLDR
It is indicated that cotinine is behaviorally active in the setting of cigarette abstinence at blood concentrations similar to those commonly achieved through daily cigarette smoking.
Cotinine disposition and effects
TLDR
It is concluded that, at levels to which cigarette smokers are generally exposed, cotinine exerts no cardiovascular activity and weak, if any, psychologic activity.
Studies on the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of (-)-cotinine.
TLDR
It has been shown that (-)-cotinine has a depressor activity which was not abolished by ordinary blocking doses of atropine or diphenhydramine, and the presence of depressorActivity in the decerebrate and spinal dog is consistent with the suggestion that the effect may be mediated through the ability of (-)- Cotinine to produce, directly or indirectly, a vascular muscular relaxation.
Pharmacokinetics of nicotine, cotinine, and 3'-hydroxycotinine in cigarette smokers.
TLDR
The high percentage of renal clearance suggests that further metabolization of this compound is limited, and no evidence for a mutagenic activity of 3'-hydroxycotinine or of urine extracts from subjects dosed with hydroxycotinines was found with the S. typhimurium microsome assay.
Signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal.
TLDR
Observer and subject ratings of the DSM-III symptoms of craving for tobacco, irritability, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and restlessness increased after cessation, and bradycardia, impatience, somatic complaints, insomnia, increased hunger, and increased eating occurred after cessation.
Effects of nicotine, cocaine and some of their metabolites on schedule-controlled responding by beagle dogs and squirrel monkeys.
TLDR
The experiments indicate the metabolites of nicotine and cocaine are behaviorally active and may contribute to the pharmacological profile of the parent compounds.
Characterization of tobacco withdrawal: physiological and subjective effects.
TLDR
Objective data indicate that after tobacco deprivation smokers actually sleep longer, which contradicts subjective reports of insomnia, and is believed to be the first to simultaneously measure changes in caloric intake, fluid retention, and physical activity after Tobacco deprivation.
N-Methylation of nicotine ad cotinine in vivo.
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