BACKGROUND Rifampin (RFP) is a first-line antituberculosis drug, but it increases the risk of acute rejection (AR) in transplant recipients. This study evaluated whether quinolone (QNL) can replace RFP in renal transplant recipients with tuberculosis. METHODS One hundred nine patients with active tuberculosis were included. Patients consisted of RFP (n = 91) and QNL (n = 18) groups based on the initial treatment regimen. Patients with RFP-associated adverse effects were subdivided into RFP-maintenance (RFP-M; n = 18) and QNL-conversion (QNL-C; n = 8) groups. Clinical outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS The incidence of AR was higher in the RFP group than in the QNL group (24.2% vs 5.6%). The QNL group showed significantly higher 10-year graft survival rates than the RFP group (88.1% vs 66.5%; P = .022). The QNL-C group showed significantly higher 10-year graft survival rates than the RFP-M group (87.5% vs 27.8%; P = .011). The rate of complete functional recovery after AR was higher in the QNL-C group than in the RFP-M group (50% vs 22.2%). CONCLUSIONS A QNL-based regimen may be safe and effective for treatment of tuberculosis and may lower the risk of graft failure in renal transplant recipients.