Surgical treatment is often recommended for traumatic iliopsoas hematoma. Open surgeries lead to severe surgical trauma, and minimally invasive surgeries cannot completely remove the hematoma. A new treatment protocol for traumatic iliopsoas hematoma by retroperitoneoscopic approach has been introduced. The goal of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of retroperitoneoscopic approach used to remove iliopsoas hematoma. Between January 2009 and July 2012, 13 patients were diagnosed of traumatic iliopsoas hematoma. Retroperitoneoscopic surgeries were performed on all patients to remove the hematomas after admission. The size of hematoma, VASA score and neurologic status were dynamic evaluated before and after surgery. Soft tissue damage and complications caused by retroperitoneoscopic approach also were recorded and evaluated. We performed retroperitoneoscopic surgery to remove traumatic iliopsoas hematoma successfully on 13 patients without complications. The mean procedure time was 52.5 ± 13.4 min, and mean blood loss was 30.7 ± 9.2 ml. Hematoma was completely removed confirmed by ultrasound after surgery. Pain in the affected lower abdominal and thigh immediately was relieved totally for ten patients and partly for three patients after surgery. Quadriceps strength was restored to grade 5 and pain completely disappeared 2 months postoperatively on all patients. Numbness along the femoral nerve distribution disappeared for 11 patients and improved for 2 patients until the last follow-up. None of 13 patients suffered from infection or a new hematoma during follow-up. Retroperitoneoscopic approach is a safe and effective procedure alternative to conventional surgical approach for treating traumatic iliopsoas hematoma in terms of complete removal of hematoma, minimal invasiveness, absence of radiation, and rapid recovery.