Safety Evaluation And Risk Assessment Of d-Limonene

@article{Kim2013SafetyEA,
  title={Safety Evaluation And Risk Assessment Of d-Limonene},
  author={Young Woo Kim and Min Ji Kim and Bu Young Chung and Du Yeon Bang and Seong Kwang Lim and Seul Min Choi and Duck Soo Lim and M. C. Cho and Kyungsil Yoon and Hyung Sik Kim and Kyu Bong Kim and You Sun Kim and Seung Jun Kwack and Byung Mu Lee},
  journal={Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B},
  year={2013},
  volume={16},
  pages={17 - 38}
}
d-Limonene, a major constituent of citrus oils, is a monoterpene widely used as a flavor/fragrance additive in cosmetics, foods, and industrial solvents as it possesses a pleasant lemon-like odor. d-Limonene has been designated as a chemical with low toxicity based upon lethal dose (LD50) and repeated-dose toxicity studies when administered orally to animals. However, skin irritation or sensitizing potential was reported following widespread use of this agent in various consumer products. In… 

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References

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  • Jidong Sun
  • Medicine
    Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic
  • 2007
D-limonene has well-established chemopreventive activity against many types of cancer and demonstrated a partial response in a patient with breast cancer and stable disease for more than six months in three patients with colorectal cancer.

Animal experiments on the allergenicity of d-limonene--the citrus solvent.

It is concluded that allergenic compounds are formed from d-limonene upon prolonged air exposure and products containing d- Limonene should therefore be kept in cold storage in closed vessels.

Assessment of the subchronic oral toxicity of d-limonene in dogs.

Pharmacokinetics of d-limonene in the rat by GC-MS assay.

Risk assessment of d-limonene: an example of male rat-specific renal tumorigens.

It can be concluded that d-limonene does not pose any carcinogenic or nephrotoxic risk to humans and the deduction that the renal tumors induced in male rats are not relevant to human carcinogenicity in the hazard evaluation step of risk assessment completes the evaluation of human risk for d- Limonene.

d-limonene exposure to humans by inhalation: uptake, distribution, elimination, and effects on the pulmonary function.

The toxicokinetics of d-limonene were studied in human volunteers exposed by inhalation in an exposure chamber on three different occasions and the blood clearance in this study, 1.1 l kg-1 h-1, indicates that d- Limonene is metabolized readily.

Oxidized citrus oil (R-limonene): a frequent skin sensitizer in Europe.

The high frequency of oxidized limonene allergy provides clinical evidence for the European classification of R-(+)-limonene that contains oxidation products as skin sensitizers.

Modulation of immune responses in mice by d-limonene.

Evidence was presented that d-limonene had polyclonal activator action and significant secondary follicle development and prominent lymphoid nodules and aggregates were found in the pancreas and intestinal mucosa, particularly apparent in mice receiving the highest d- Limonene dosage.
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