Safety Evaluation And Risk Assessment Of d-Limonene

  title={Safety Evaluation And Risk Assessment Of d-Limonene},
  author={Young Woo Kim and Min Ji Kim and Bu Young Chung and Du Yeon Bang and Seong Kwang Lim and Seul Min Choi and Duck Soo Lim and M. C. Cho and Kyungsil Yoon and Hyung Sik Kim and Kyu Bong Kim and You Sun Kim and Seung Jun Kwack and Byung Mu Lee},
  journal={Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B},
  pages={17 - 38}
d-Limonene, a major constituent of citrus oils, is a monoterpene widely used as a flavor/fragrance additive in cosmetics, foods, and industrial solvents as it possesses a pleasant lemon-like odor. d-Limonene has been designated as a chemical with low toxicity based upon lethal dose (LD50) and repeated-dose toxicity studies when administered orally to animals. However, skin irritation or sensitizing potential was reported following widespread use of this agent in various consumer products. In… 

Review of toxicological assessment of d-limonene, a food and cosmetics additive.

Hepatotoxicity of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes

The present review is focused on the hepatotoxic properties of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, plant secondary metabolites that represent the major components of essential oils wildly used in folk medicines, pharmaceutical industry and cosmetics.

Genotoxic effects induced by beta-myrcene following metabolism by liver HepG2/C3A human cells

Under experimental conditions, caution is recommended in the use of beta-myrcene, since this compound produced genotoxic effects especially after metabolic activation using human HepG2/C3A cells, which may be associated with carcinogenic and teratogenic effects previously reported in the literature.

Safety and Efficacy of Pure and a Nanosuspension of D-limonene for Controlling Pigeon Lice.

DL and DLN are safe and effective in controlling feather lice infestation in pigeons and successful treatment encourages bird productivity, and biochemical analysis showed that the treated birds retained normal kidney and liver functions.

Possible Carcinogenic Mechanisms Underlying Renal Carcinogens in Food

Clear positive results from reporter gene mutation assays for AA, MC and OTA strongly suggest that genotoxic mechanisms are involved in carcinogenesis induced by these agents, while KBrO3 elevated MFs in the red/gam gene (Spi−), it did so to a lower extent than did potent genot toxic carcinogens.

Effect of Limonene on Cancer Development in Rodent Models: A Systematic Review

Limonene was shown to promote cell apoptosis in 4 studies that examined either the apoptosis index or apoptosis related gene/protein expressions and supported the potential applicability of limonene on inhibiting cancer development.

Non-clinical toxicity of (+)-limonene epoxide and its physio-pharmacological properties on neurological disorders

The compound inhibited the developing of pentylenetetrazol- and picrotoxin-induced seizures, decreased deaths, and reduced immobility times, suggesting antidepressant effects should be linked to serotonergic and/or adrenergic transmission.

Encapsulated Limonene: A Pleasant Lemon-Like Aroma with Promising Application in the Agri-Food Industry. A Review

This review intends to give a clear overview of the principal emerging applications of limonene in the agri-food industry as antimicrobial, herbicidal and antioxidant agent.



D-Limonene: safety and clinical applications.

  • Jidong Sun
  • Medicine
    Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic
  • 2007
D-limonene has well-established chemopreventive activity against many types of cancer and demonstrated a partial response in a patient with breast cancer and stable disease for more than six months in three patients with colorectal cancer.

Animal experiments on the allergenicity of d-limonene--the citrus solvent.

It is concluded that allergenic compounds are formed from d-limonene upon prolonged air exposure and products containing d- Limonene should therefore be kept in cold storage in closed vessels.

Assessment of the subchronic oral toxicity of d-limonene in dogs.

Pharmacokinetics of d-limonene in the rat by GC-MS assay.

Risk assessment of d-limonene: an example of male rat-specific renal tumorigens.

It can be concluded that d-limonene does not pose any carcinogenic or nephrotoxic risk to humans and the deduction that the renal tumors induced in male rats are not relevant to human carcinogenicity in the hazard evaluation step of risk assessment completes the evaluation of human risk for d- Limonene.

d-limonene exposure to humans by inhalation: uptake, distribution, elimination, and effects on the pulmonary function.

The toxicokinetics of d-limonene were studied in human volunteers exposed by inhalation in an exposure chamber on three different occasions and the blood clearance in this study, 1.1 l kg-1 h-1, indicates that d- Limonene is metabolized readily.

Oxidized citrus oil (R-limonene): a frequent skin sensitizer in Europe.

The high frequency of oxidized limonene allergy provides clinical evidence for the European classification of R-(+)-limonene that contains oxidation products as skin sensitizers.

Modulation of immune responses in mice by d-limonene.

Evidence was presented that d-limonene had polyclonal activator action and significant secondary follicle development and prominent lymphoid nodules and aggregates were found in the pancreas and intestinal mucosa, particularly apparent in mice receiving the highest d- Limonene dosage.