Safety Assessment of Castoreum Extract as a Food Ingredient

  title={Safety Assessment of Castoreum Extract as a Food Ingredient},
  author={G. Burdock},
  journal={International Journal of Toxicology},
  pages={51 - 55}
  • G. Burdock
  • Published 2007
  • Medicine, Biology
  • International Journal of Toxicology
Castoreum extract (CAS NO. 8023–83–4; FEMA NO. 2261) is a natural product prepared by direct hot-alcohol extraction of castoreum, the dried and macerated castor sac scent glands (and their secretions) from the male or female beaver. It has been used extensively in perfumery and has been added to food as a flavor ingredient for at least 80 years. Both the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regard castoreum extract as generally… Expand
Need of the hour: to raise awareness on vicious fragrances and synthetic musks
It is important to further investigate the dangers associated with fragrance compounds, to inform the regulatory bodies to allow them to better control manufacturers, and to alert consumers. Expand
Decalepisarayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras.) Venter, an endemic and endangered ethno medicinal plant from Western Ghats, India
This study was conducted to characterise the root aroma of this plant for possible industrial applications, and suggests that due to its peculiar vanilla flavour, the plant could be explored as a potential substitute of vanillin-aroma in the flavour industry. Expand
A Perilous Consequence Of Ice-Cream
The topic about the paper is toxic ingredients in the ice creams and their effects. Basically the people from all ages love ice creams, but ice creams of now-a-days are not healthy and good as weExpand
Enantiospecific Synthesis and Biological Investigations of a Nuphar Alkaloid: Proposed Structure of a Castoreum Component.
An enantiospecific synthesis of a nuphar alkaloid was achieved in nine steps from N-Boc-(L)-proline. The alkaloid is a minor component of castoreum, which is secreted from the dried scent glands of aExpand
Immortalized equivalent human epidermis as a platform to evaluation hair dyes toxicity: Efficiency comparison between 3D and monolayer culture.
3D model of epidermis using HaCaT immortalized cells is used to evaluate the dermal toxicity induced by Basic Blue 99 and Basic Red 51, both present in commercial hair dye formulations and shows that cells cultured in the 3D model respond differently to those cultured in monolayer. Expand
Semi-permanent hair dyes degradation at W/WO3 photoanode under controlled current density assisted by visible light
Abstract The indiscriminate use of hair dyes has attracted great deal of attention due to its toxicological and mutagenic aspects demonstrated by some of these substances. Thus, the effluent fromExpand
Behaviour of chemical respiratory allergens in novel predictive methods for skin sensitisation.
The use of an integrated testing strategy could provide a basis for recognition of most respiratory sensitising chemicals, although a more complete picture of the performance characteristics of such tests is required before specific recommendations can be made. Expand
Safety of hair products during pregnancy: personal use and occupational exposure.
There is no evidence of teratogenic effects for pregnant women exposed to these products from occupational use (ie, hairdressing); however, it is recommended that pregnant hairdressers wear gloves to minimize exposure. Expand
Ancient throwing dart reveals first archaeological evidence of castoreum
Abstract Alpine ice patches were caribou and sheep hunting territories for southern Yukon First Nations people for thousands of years. With increasing global temperatures, well-preserved projectileExpand
Cyclic enaminones: Methodology development, total synthesis, and library construction
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. December 2011. Major: Chemistry. Advisor: Gunda I. Georg.1 computer file (PDF): xii, 252 pages.


Antimicrobial activity of aroma chemicals and essential oils
The results demonstrate that creation of a practical antimicrobial soap fragrance does not appear to be possible. Expand
Encyclopedia of food and color additives
This document explains where the substance is grown how it is cultivated, gathered, and brought to market how it gets into food species and subspecies producing this commodity differences in geographical origin and how it impacts the quality of the product. Expand
Toxicologic evaluation of flavor ingredients added to cigarette tobacco: skin painting bioassay of cigarette smoke condensate in SENCAR mice.
Four comparative two-stage SENCAR mouse skin painting bioassays were conducted with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) preparations to evaluate the effect of common American cigarette flavoring ingredients on tumor promotion, and none of the changes appeared to be substantial enough to conclude that the tumor promotion capacity of CSC obtained from cigarettes containing tobacco with ingredients was discernibly different from the C SC obtained from reference cigarettes containing Tobacco processed without ingredients. Expand
Castoreum of Beaver (Castor Canadensis): Function, Chemistry and Biological Activity of Its Components
Castoreum, the paste found in the paired castor sacs of both sexes in beaver, Castor canadensis and C. fiber, has been used for medicines and perfumes since time immemorial. The Romans burnedExpand
Phototoxicity testing of fragrance raw materials.
Abstract Of 160 fragrance raw materials tested for phototoxicity by a procedure involving topical application of the test agents to the skin of hairless mice and miniature swine, followed by exposureExpand
Neutral compounds from male castoreum of North American beaver,Castor canadensis
13 neutral compounds that had not been reported before for castoreum were identified, including two oxygen-containing monoterpenes and two linalool oxides that are not volatile enough to be detected by methods. Expand
Recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients under the Food Additives Amendment. 15. GRAS substances.
Liste des composes aromatiques generalement consideres comme sans danger par un jury d'expert de l'Association des fabricants d'aromes et d'extraits (Etats Unis)
“Food Additives”
  • H. Natvig
  • Medicine
  • Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke
  • 1964
The lawyer and the doctor give what they have to give and neither of them seek to obtain any reward in permanent remembrance; their reward is the reward of the righteous, but in the end it is their only reward. Expand
Zur Kenntnis der stickstoffhaltigen Inhaltsstoffe von Castoreum
Investigation of the Nitrogen-containing Compounds of Castoreum. Fourteen nitrogen-containing compounds, 2–15, have been identified for the first time from the scent gland of the CanadianExpand
Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver (Castor canadensis): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication
The relationship of castoreum and anal gland secretion to scent communication among beavers is discussed and the structure of the castor sacs is discussed. Expand