Sacred Cows and Water Buffalo in India: The Uses of Ethnography [and Comments and Reply]

  title={Sacred Cows and Water Buffalo in India: The Uses of Ethnography [and Comments and Reply]},
  author={Stanley A. Freed and Ruth S. Freed and Roger E. H. Ballard and Kumarananda Chattopadhyay and Paul W. Diener and Louis Dumont and John Vincent Ferreira and Christopher J. Fuller and Marvin Harris and Deryck O. Lodrick and Shaista Malik and S. N. Mishra and W. Newell and Donald M. Nonini and A. R. Rajapurohit and Eugene E. Robkin and Ursula M. Sharma and M. H. Suryanarayana and Harnam Singh Verma},
  journal={Current Anthropology},
  pages={483 - 502}
In 1958-59 and in 1977-78, we undertook holistic ethnographic studies of a village in northern India. Profound technoenvironmental change occurred in the 18-year period between the two studies. With regard to cattle, the principal change was a shift from bullock power to machinery. This provided the basis for a test of the two principal positions that have been taken in the sacred-cow controversy: (1) technoenvironmental determinism, which denies that religious belief is an independent… 
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