SURVIVAL OF DISTASTEFUL INSECTS AFTER BEING ATTACKED BY NAIVE BIRDS: A REAPPRAISAL OF THE THEORY OF APOSEMATIC COLORATION EVOLVING THROUGH INDIVIDUAL SELECTION

@article{Wiklund1982SURVIVALOD,
  title={SURVIVAL OF DISTASTEFUL INSECTS AFTER BEING ATTACKED BY NAIVE BIRDS: A REAPPRAISAL OF THE THEORY OF APOSEMATIC COLORATION EVOLVING THROUGH INDIVIDUAL SELECTION},
  author={Christer Wiklund and Torbj{\"o}rn J{\"a}rvi},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={1982},
  volume={36}
}
Many unpalatable species of insects are brightly colored, i.e., aposematic, and this has been regarded as a signal to predators. Today there seems to be a general consensus that most predators learn to avoid aposematic prey only after sampling, and in the process killing, one or a few individuals (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1952; Brower, 1958a, 1958b, 1958c; Harvey and Greenwood, 1978). If this is correct rare aposematic forms will always be selected against, and it is hard to see how a gene for… 
THE EVOLUTION OF APOSEMATIC COLORATION IN DISTASTEFUL PREY: AN INDIVIDUAL SELECTION MODEL
TLDR
The conditions under which aposematic coloration can evolve solely through individual selection, without the need for kin selection are explored.
Aposematic caterpillars: life-styles of the warningly colored and unpalatable
TLDR
Insects that are unpalatable are particularly interesting in that they not only use their bad taste or unpleasant odor as a defense, but they usually also advertise this defense to would-be predators by attributes such as conspicuous coloration, gregariousness, and sedentary be­ havior.
Being conspicuous and defended: selective benefits for the individual
TLDR
There could be a selective advantage for a rare conspicuous morph to arise in a population of cryptic defended prey due to increased avoidance learning and taste-rejection in naive predators, and it is suggested that being a non-preferred color and/or highly defended will increase the probability of this evolutionary scenario.
Reactions of passerine birds to aposematic and non-aposematic firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus; Heteroptera)
TLDR
Reactions of nine passerine bird species to the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus wildtype (brachypterous adults) and its artificially obtained (painted) brown non-aposematic variant were compared and can be interpreted in terms of the presence of a higher proportion of experienced individuals among insectivorous than among omnivorous species.
The Degree of Mutual Resemblance and its Effect on Predation in Young Birds
TLDR
It is found that overall contact with the aposematic prey decreased significantly (chi-square test, p < .005) and that eating the test prey ceased completely and young predators and different predatory species may be less discerning within certain limits or may require a longer time to learn to make fine distinctions than other classes of predators.
Aposematism and gregariousness: the combined effect of group size and coloration on signal repellence
TLDR
It is concluded that the aversiveness of prey grouping in this study can be explained as increased signal repellence of specific prey coloration, in this case a classical warning coloration.
Aposematic Insects as Six-Legged Fruits: Incidental Short-Circuiting of Their Defense by Frugivorous Birds
TLDR
It is hypothesized that frugivorous birds may take advantage of the conspicuousness and ease of capture of aposematic insects, thus short-circuiting insect defense and avoiding predation.
Survival advantage of sluggish individuals in aggregations of aposematic prey, during encounters with ambush predators
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the fastest-moving individual in an aggregation of aposematic insects is more likely than sluggish cohorts to be attacked by motion-oriented predators, which could create a selection pressure for the evolution of sluggish movement as a defense mechanism in aposemat, gregarious prey.
The Evolution of Gregariousness in Distasteful Insects as a Defense Against Predators
TLDR
A model is developed in which the risk of detection in relation to group size and the degree of prey distastefulness and aposematic coloration are varied, both of which affect the number of prey a predator samples during avoidance learning.
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TLDR
To test the cost of being aposematic fifteen wild-caught great tits, Parus major L., were allowed to choose between mealworms and swallowtail larvae, generally the birds attacked the swallowtail larva at the first opportunity and learned to avoid the larvae after experiencing their distastefulness.
Adaptive Coloration in Animals
THIS excellent work, eagerly awaited for many years, will be most welcome to naturalists, even, we may hope, to the few who have hitherto rejected the Darwinian interpretation which the author has
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    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
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TLDR
This study appears to be the first direct test of unpalatability and mimicry theory using both vertebrate predators (lizards) and live prey (butterflies) in their natural habitats.
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The cornerstone of Mullerian mimicry is uniformity of pattern, and Mullerian mimics are not likely to be polymorphic, unlike Batesian mimICS (palatable species resembling unpalatable ones), in which polymorphism is favoured by natural selection.
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TLDR
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TLDR
In this experiment, hand-raised birds avoided novel insects in a manner which showed that the rejection was not learned or innate, and suggest that there need not be an association with noxiousness in order for conspicuous coloration to be a selective advantage.
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TLDR
Results from a series of experiments provide evidence that vertebrate predators take fewer trials when learning to avoid conspicuous rather than cryptic distasteful prey.
UNPALATABILITY AS A DEFENSE STRATEGY OF EUPHYDRYAS PHAETON (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE)
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    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
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The use of unpalatability as a defense strategy of butterflies has been studied since the time of Bates (1862). Most studies have focused primarily on the role of unpalatability in mimicry systems,
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF MIMICRY IN SOME NORTH AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES. PART III. ***DANAUS GILIPPUS BERENICE AND LIMENITIS ARCHIPPUS FLORIDENSIS
TLDR
The present paper is an investigation of presumed mimicry in Danaus gilippus berenice (Cramer), model, and Limenitis archippus floridensis (Strecker), mimic, sometimes called the Queen and the Florida Viceroy, respectively.
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