SUPERFLUID HELIUM: Visualization of quantized vortices

  title={SUPERFLUID HELIUM: Visualization of quantized vortices},
  author={G. Bewley and D. Lathrop and K. Sreenivasan},
When liquid helium is cooled to below its phase transition at 2.172 K, vortices appear with cores that are only ångströms in diameter, about which the fluid circulates with quantized angular momentum. Here we generate small particles of solid hydrogen that can be used to image the cores of quantized vortices in their three-dimensional environment of liquid helium. This technique enables the geometry and interactions of these vortices to be observed directly. 
The journey of hydrogen to quantized vortex cores
Nanoscale hydrogen particles in superfluid helium track the motions of quantized vortices. This provides a way to visualize turbulence in the superfluid. Here, we trace the evolution of the hydrogenExpand
Visualization of Kelvin waves on quantum vortices
In superfluid helium, vorticity is quantized and constrained on line-like phase singularities, called quantum or quantized vortices. By visualizing the motion of sub-micron frozen particles inExpand
Visualization of Quantized Vortex Dynamics
We discuss an experimental technique developed to visualize quantized vortices in helium II. We illuminate micron-sized solid particles of hydrogen suspended in the fluid, and mark quantized vortexExpand
Quantum vortex visualization in superfluid helium
Superfluid helium is an important model system to study quantum hydrodynamics. Numerous researches have been reported on fascinating phenomena including superfluidity, unusually low viscosity, andExpand
Visualization of Superfluid Helium Flow
We discuss an experimental technique to visualize motion in the bulk of superfluid 4 He by tracking micron-sized solid hydrogen tracers. The behavior of the tracers is complex since they may beExpand
Friction Force Limits the Drift of Microparticles Along the Quantum Vortex in Liquid Helium
Massive enough particles of frozen hydrogen are known to be captured by quantum vortices in liquid helium. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the drift of such particles along the vortex isExpand
The generation of particles to observe quantized vortex dynamics in superfluid helium
Abstract We describe a method to prepare a sample of superfluid helium-4 with hydrogen particles suspended within it. The method is to dilute hydrogen gas with helium at room temperature, and bubbleExpand
A Study of the Motion of Particles in Superfluid Helium-4 and Interactions with Vortices
We describe experiments in which a sound pulse is used to inject small particles into liquid helium at temperatures between 1 and 3 K. The motion of these particles is then observed. We are able toExpand
Is the Reynolds number infinite in superfluid turbulence
Abstract Superfluidity, the hallmark property of quantum fluids (e.g. liquid helium, atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, neutron stars), is characterised by the absence of viscosity. At temperaturesExpand
Dynamics of the Vortex-Particle Complexes Bound to the Free Surface of Superfluid Helium.
We present an experimental and theoretical study of the 2D dynamics of electrically charged nanoparticles trapped under a free surface of superfluid helium in a static vertical electric field. WeExpand


Quantized Vortices in Helium II
Preface 1. Background on classical vortices 2. Background on liquid helium II 3. Vortex dynamics and mutual friction 4. The structure of quantized vortices 5. Vortex arrays 6. Vortex waves 7. QuantumExpand
Motion of tracer particles in He II
Recent experiments have shown that it is possible to implement particle image velocimetry (PIV) in liquid helium. However, to interpret the PIV data in the superfluid phase, it is necessary toExpand
Large-scale turbulent flow around a cylinder in counterflow superfluid4He (He (II))
The detailed nature of fluid flow over a cylinder is one of the fundamental topics in classical fluid dynamics as it demonstrates flow separation and vortex shedding1. In superfluid helium, either HeExpand
Flow visualization study of thermal counterflow jet in He II
Abstract A method of flow visualization in superfluid helium has been developed by the use of solid H 2 D 2 particles and hollow glass spheres as neutrally buoyant tracers to follow the normalExpand
Chapter II Application of Quantum Mechanics to Liquid Helium
Publisher Summary The aim of this chapter is to describe the physical ideas that have been suggested to explain the behavior of helium, which can most easily be related to the properties of theExpand