author={Matthew W. Pincus and P. Karl Rollings and Allan B. Craft and Ad{\`e}le Green},
  journal={Australasian Journal of Dermatology},
The prevalence of use of sunscreens was assessed in an environment of high ultraviolet (UV) exposure by surveying U7 males and 126 females on two Queensland beaches. Using a questionnaire, information was obtained about their application of sunscreen on the day of participation in the study, thus eliminating recall error. It was found that 71% of the female and 68% of the male beach‐goers sampled had applied sunscreen, 47% of which had the maximum Sun Protection Factor (15 +) rating. There was… 
A survey of sunscreen use and sun-protection practices in Darwin.
The results suggest that the sun-protection practices of visitors to the Northern Territory are less than optimal, and that among the longer-term residents of the Northern Territories who are at greatest risk of developing skin cancer, precautions against sun exposure could be greatly improved.
Predictors of the use of sunscreen in dermatological patients in Central Europe.
Men, older people, and outdoor workers should be targeted in health education campaigns for sunscreen use, and people who apply sunscreen as a means of sun protection should be advised about adequate usage.
Do people who apply sunscreens, re‐apply them?
Significantly more women (66%) than men (53%) reported re‐applying sunscreen and re‐application was inversely related to age, and increased rates of re‐ Application were reported during times of increased sun exposure, as well as by those with greater knowledge of the benefits of sunscreen re‐ application.
Primary prevention of skin cancer: a review of sun protection in Australia and internationally.
The findings suggest that sunscreen is the most frequent method of sun protection used across all age groups, despite recommendations that it should be an adjunct to other forms of protection.
The North Queensland "Sun-Safe Clothing" study: design and baseline results of a randomized trial to determine the effectiveness of sun-protective clothing in preventing melanocytic nevi.
Higher melanocytic nevus counts were associated with more time spent outdoors and a history of sunburn, while sunscreen use, particularly during the mild winter months, appeared to have a protective effect.
Sun exposure concern, sun protection behaviors and physical activity among Australian adults
Women reported more frequent use of sunscreen and seeking shade when outdoors, while men reported more hat wearing; women and those who were physically inactive were more concerned about sun exposure and skin damage.
Practice of Skin Cancer Prevention among Young Malaysian
Gender, marital status and income significantly influenced the practice of sunscreen use among the study participants, showing poor practice of skin cancer prevention among university students.
Patterns and causes of sun exposing and sun protecting behavior
“Sun protective behavior” (SPB) minimizes the skin’s exposure to ultraviolet radiation through employing personal protective aids to minimize skin exposure when outdoors using covering clothing, a sunscreen of SPF ≥ 15, sunglasses, or umbrellas; and, or, seeking shade.


Psychosocial factors in sunbathing and sunscreen use.
  • B. Keesling, H. Friedman
  • Psychology
    Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • 1987
Results indicate that sunbathing is clearly related to having a positive attitude toward risk taking, having little knowledge about skin cancer, reporting a relaxed mood, having friends who sunbathe, and engaging in activities related to maintaining a positive physical appearance.
Adolescent use of sun‐protection measures
Investigations to increase the use of sun protection are more likely to be effective if they are targeted at the modifying of beliefs about the benefits and barriers to sun‐screening, the perceptions of an appropriate image for peers and parental influences about covering‐up in the sun.
Sunscreens and their use in the preventive treatment of sunlight-induced skin damage.
  • M. Pathak
  • Medicine
    The Journal of dermatologic surgery and oncology
  • 1987
Concerns about the harmful effects of UVA radiation and tanning parlors on human skin and the methods used to minimize the potential damaging effects ofUVA are discussed.
Protection factor of sunscreens to monochromatic radiation.
Alcoholic solutions of PABA were the most effective, with a mean protection factor (PF) of 17.6; esters ofPABA were less effective,With no significant difference in the PF with the different wavelengths 295 to 313 nm.
Determinants of intentions to take precautions against skin cancer.
Important sex differences, as well as similarities were discovered in the beliefs functionally related to the precautionary intentions, suggesting guidelines for a segmented health education strategy.
Incidence of non-melanocytic skin cancer treated in Australia
A person's skin reaction to strong sunlight was a good indicator of the risk of skin cancer, tanning ability being inversely related to its incidence.
Photoaging. Manifestations, prevention, and treatment.
  • L. Kligman
  • Medicine
    Clinics in geriatric medicine
  • 1989
Being SunSmart: Changes in Community Awareness and Reported Behaviour Following a Primary Prevention Program for Skin Cancer Control
There is high community awareness of the need to take precautions against overexposure to solar UVR, coupled with high knowledge of appropriate behaviours and increased reporting of actually taking these precautions.
Infant mortality in socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged areas of Brisbane.
Problems in defining social class and its relationship to health are discussed and the results of a study of infant mortality from 1976 to 1979 in socioeconomically ranked suburbs of Brisbane are
Rank correlation methods: London: Chas Griffin
  • 1962