PURPOSE Multiple targets with large intrafraction independent motion are often involved in advanced prostate, lung, abdominal, and head and neck cancer radiotherapy. Current standard of care treats these with the originally planned fields, jeopardizing the treatment outcomes. A real-time multi-leaf collimator (MLC) tracking method has been developed to address this problem for the first time. This study evaluates the geometric uncertainty of the multi-target tracking method. METHODS Four treatment scenarios are simulated based on a prostate IMAT plan to treat a moving prostate target and static pelvic node target: 1) real-time multi-target MLC tracking; 2) real-time prostate-only MLC tracking; 3) correcting for prostate interfraction motion at setup only; and 4) no motion correction. The geometric uncertainty of the treatment is assessed by the sum of the erroneously underexposed target area and overexposed healthy tissue areas for each individual target. Two patient-measured prostate trajectories of average 2 and 5 mm motion magnitude are used for simulations. RESULTS Real-time multi-target tracking accumulates the least uncertainty overall. As expected, it covers the static nodes similarly well as no motion correction treatment and covers the moving prostate similarly well as the real-time prostate-only tracking. Multi-target tracking reduces >90% of uncertainty for the static nodal target compared to the real-time prostate-only tracking or interfraction motion correction. For prostate target, depending on the motion trajectory which affects the uncertainty due to leaf-fitting, multi-target tracking may or may not perform better than correcting for interfraction prostate motion by shifting patient at setup, but it reduces ∼50% of uncertainty compared to no motion correction. CONCLUSION The developed real-time multi-target MLC tracking can adapt for the independently moving targets better than other available treatment adaptations. This will enable PTV margin reduction to minimize health tissue toxicity while remain tumor coverage when treating advanced disease with independently moving targets involved. The authors acknowledge funding support from the Australian NHMRC Australia Fellowship and NHMRC Project Grant No. APP1042375.