STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES

@article{Avery1944STUDIESOT,
  title={STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES},
  author={Oswald T. Avery and Colin M. Macleod and Maclyn Mccarty},
  journal={The Journal of Experimental Medicine},
  year={1944},
  volume={79},
  pages={137 - 158}
}
1. From Type III pneumococci a biologically active fraction has been isolated in highly purified form which in exceedingly minute amounts is capable under appropriate cultural conditions of inducing the transformation of unencapsulated R variants of Pneumococcus Type II into fully encapsulated cells of the same specific type as that of the heat-killed microorganisms from which the inducing material was recovered. 2. Methods for the isolation and purification of the active transforming material… Expand
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TLDR
Previous findings on the thermal characteristics of the property of S vaccines responsible for transformation of type have been confirmed and extended. Expand
DECOMPOSITION OF THE CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE III BY A BACTERIAL ENZYME
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The specific decomposition of the capsular polysaccharide of Type III Pneumococcus, by the organism as well as by the enzyme it produces, illustrates once more the specificity of the types of P pneumococcus and confirms the fact that the Capsular Polysaccharides, and not some impurities carried along with them, are responsible for type specificity. Expand
THE TRANSFORMATION IN VITRO OF R PNEUMOCOCCI INTO S FORMS OF DIFFERENT SPECIFIC TYPES BY THE USE OF FILTERED PNEUMOCOCCUS EXTRACTS
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1. Avirulent R pneumococci derived from S forms of a specific type may be changed by growth in broth containing anti-R serum and a heated, filtered extract of S pneumococci of a different type, intoExpand
THE TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : II. THE INTERCONVERTIBILITY OF TYPE-SPECIFIC S PNEUMOCOCCI.
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The ro1e which the phenomenon of transformation of type may play in problems of infection and epidemiology is indicated and the causes responsible for the transformations are discussed. Expand
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TLDR
The transformation "R" to "S" may be effected in vitro by growth in anti-"R" sera, as well as in vivo by the method of animal passage. Expand