SPIRITS: THE REACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN JĀBIR'S ALCHEMY

@article{Eleswed2006SPIRITSTR,
  title={SPIRITS: THE REACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN JĀBIR'S ALCHEMY},
  author={Bassam I. El-eswed},
  journal={Arabic Sciences and Philosophy},
  year={2006},
  volume={16},
  pages={71 - 90}
}
  • B. El-eswed
  • Published 15 February 2006
  • Chemistry
  • Arabic Sciences and Philosophy
The spirits (arwāḥ) found in Arabic alchemical texts, namely zi'baq, kibrīt, nūshādir and zarnīkh are identified with their modern counterparts, which are mercury, sulfur, ammonium chloride (carbonate) and arsenic (arsenous) sulfide, respectively. Jābir's conception of spirits has been shown to be related to his practice. The puzzling experiments of Jābir on ‘mineral and organic’ spirits are compared as far as possible with modern knowledge of chemistry. These comparisons lead to an… 
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