author={Paul D. Mack and Brian A. Hammock and Daniel E. L. Promislow},
  booktitle={Evolution; international journal of organic evolution},
Abstract Offspring of close relatives often suffer severe fitness consequences. Previous studies have demonstrated that females, when given a choice, will choose to avoid mating with closely related males. But where opportunities for mate choice are limited or kin recognition is absent, precopulatory mechanisms may not work. In this case, either sex could reduce the risks of inbreeding through mechanisms that occur during or after copulation. During mating, males or females could commit fewer… 

Assortative mating for relatedness in a large naturally occurring population of Drosophila melanogaster

The results are consistent with the hypothesis that inclusive fitness benefits may drive inbreeding tolerance despite direct costs to fitness; however, an experimental approach is needed to investigate the link between mate preference and relatedness.

Insight into post‐mating interactions between the sexes: relatedness suppresses productivity of singly mated female Drosophila melanogaster

A significant reduction of within‐cross productivity demonstrates PPIA in the absence of multiple mating, and it is shown that these effects were not due to inbreeding depression.

Copulation duration, but not paternity share, potentially mediates inbreeding avoidance in Drosophila montana

Inbreeding depression has been strong enough to select for inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the Finnish D. montana population, suggesting that mating with close relatives is costly.

Does Genetic Relatedness of Mates Influence Competitive Fertilization Success in Guppies

Although the data provide no evidence for postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance in the guppy, the ability of female guppies to influence ejaculate transfer and retention offers an alternative and easily testable mechanism of in breeding avoidance in this species.

The Deleterious Effects of High Inbreeding on Male Drosophila melanogaster Attractiveness are Observed Under Competitive but not Under Non-competitive Conditions

Both mating success and mating speed showed much higher inbreeding depression than male size, and under non-competitive conditions, no effect of inbreeding was found on either mating speed or copulation duration.

No evidence for precopulatory inbreeding avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster


Siblings did not have a lower fertilization success as compared to unrelated males in either the first (P1) or second (P2) mate role in sperm competition with a standard unrelated competitor male in the study population of D. melanogaster, andalyses of mating latency, copulation duration, egg production rate, and remating interval revealed no evidence for inbreeding avoidance.

Incestuous Sisters: Mate Preference for Brothers over Unrelated Males in Drosophila melanogaster

Investigation of male and female mate preferences with respect to relatedness in the fruit fly D. melanogaster found that females significantly preferred mating with their brothers, thus supporting inbreeding preference and strengthening the prediction that inbreeding tolerance and preference can evolve under specific circumstances through the positive effects on inclusive fitness.

Characterizing male-female interactions using natural genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

The results suggest that natural variation in PebII might contribute to the observed male-female interactions and identify several genes that had consistent effects across the different females including a derived, high fitness allele in Acp26Aa that may be the target of adaptive evolution.



Sperm selection and genetic incompatibility: does relatedness of mates affect male success in sperm competition?

  • P. Stockley
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1999
Some evidence is provided in support of the idea that female insects (or their ova) may be capable of selection against sperm on the basis of genetic similarity of conspecific males.

Conspecific sperm precedence in Drosophila

Evidence for cryptic reproductive divergence among three sibling species of Drosophila that leads to a form of postmating isolation is provided, indicating that females mediate sperm competition, and that second-male sperm precedence is not an automatic consequence of the mechanics of sperm storage.

Male mating experience and competitive courtship success in Drosophila melanogaster

Examination of the relative mating success of experienced males with temporarily reduced fertility and virgin males from the Canton-S strain of D. melanogaster showed that for the courtship parameters measured, virgin and experienced males are equal.

Courtship reduces longevity of male Drosophila melanogaster

Male Drosophila melanogaster exposed to virgin females that were experimentally prevented from mating had a higher death rate than males exposed to an equal number of inseminated females and mounting attempts may be an indicator of an altered metabolic rate or hormonal status that renders the males more susceptible to death.

No evidence of sperm selection by female common shrews

  • P. Stockley
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1997
It is concluded that most variation in relative fertilization success of male common shrews can be explained in terms of sperm competition, and that females of this species may not be capable of sperm selection.


Mating benefits rather than mating costs may be common in many animals, particularly in species where female mate choice has a larger effect on male reproductive success than does the outcome of sperm competition.

Female genotype affects male success in sperm competition

Evidence is provided which suggests that female genotype strongly influences the outcome of sperm competition, and it is shown that male success in sperm competition is determined, to a large extent, by gamete and/or male–female compatibility.

Sperm (ejaculate) competition in Drosophila melanogaster, and the reproductive value of females to males in relation to female age and mating status

1 In double mating experiments with Drosophila melanogaster in which one male had been irradiated, it was confirmed that sperm displacement is extensive, i.e. the second male to mate displaces most

Sexual conflict and the evolution of female mate choice and male social dominance

The dynamic struggle between the sexes for control of mating opportunities and outcomes in N.cinerea reveals a unique role for sexual conflict in the evolution of the behavioural components of sexual selection.

Female control : sexual selection by cryptic female choice

Cryptic female choice establishes a new bridge between sexual selection theory and reproductive physiology, in particular the physiological effects of male seminal products on female reproductive processes, such as sperm transport, oviposition, and remating.