author={Aomawa L. Shields and Cecilia M. Bitz and Victoria S. Meadows and Manoj M. Joshi and Tyler D. Robinson},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
Distant planets in globally ice-covered, “snowball,” states may depend on increases in their host stars' luminosity to become hospitable for surface life. Using a general circulation model, we simulated the equilibrium climate response of a planet to a range of instellations from an F-, G-, or M-dwarf star. The range of instellation that permits both complete ice cover and at least partially ice-free climate states is a measure of the climate hysteresis that a planet can exhibit. An ice-covered… 
Simulated Phase-dependent Spectra of Terrestrial Aquaplanets in M Dwarf Systems
Orbital phase-dependent variations in thermal emission and reflected stellar energy spectra can provide meaningful constraints on the climate states of terrestrial extrasolar planets orbiting M dwarf
Habitability and Water Loss Limits on Eccentric Planets Orbiting Main-sequence Stars
A planet’s climate can be strongly affected by its orbital eccentricity and obliquity. Here we use a one-dimensional energy balance model modified to include a simple runaway greenhouse (RGH)
Decrease in hysteresis of planetary climate for planets with long solar days
The ice-albedo feedback on rapidly rotating terrestrial planets in the habitable zone can lead to abrupt transitions (bifurcations) between a warm and a snowball (ice-covered) state, bistability
Abrupt climate transition of icy worlds from snowball to moist or runaway greenhouse
Ongoing and future space missions aim to identify potentially habitable planets in our Solar System and beyond. Planetary habitability is determined not only by a planet’s current stellar insolation
Hydrohalite Salt-albedo Feedback Could Cool M-dwarf Planets
A possible surface type that may form in the environments of M-dwarf planets is sodium chloride dihydrate, or “hydrohalite” (NaCl · 2H2O), which can precipitate in bare sea ice at low temperatures.
Energy Budgets for Terrestrial Extrasolar Planets
The pathways through which incoming energy is distributed between the surface and atmosphere have been analyzed for the Earth. However, the effect of the spectral energy distribution of a host star
No Snowball on Habitable Tidally Locked Planets with a Dynamic Ocean
Terrestrial planets orbiting within the habitable zones of M-stars are likely to become tidally locked in a 1:1 spin:orbit configuration and are prime targets for future characterization efforts. An
The habitability of stagnant-lid Earths around dwarf stars
Context. The habitability of a planet depends on various factors, such as the delivery of water during its formation, the co-evolution of the interior and the atmosphere, and the stellar irradiation
Effect of Sea-ice Drift on the Onset of Snowball Climate on Rapidly Rotating Aqua-planets
Previous studies have shown that sea-ice drift effectively promotes the onset of a globally ice-covered snowball climate for paleo Earth and for tidally locked planets around low-mass stars. Here, we
Transition from eyeball to snowball driven by sea-ice drift on tidally locked terrestrial planets
Tidally locked terrestrial planets around low-mass stars are the prime targets for future atmospheric characterizations of potentially habitable systems 1 , especially the three nearby ones—Proxima b


Although Earth's orbit is never far from circular, terrestrial planets around other stars might experience substantial changes in eccentricity. Eccentricity variations could lead to climate changes,
Simulations of the Atmospheres of Synchronously Rotating Terrestrial Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs: Conditions for Atmospheric Collapse and the Implications for Habitability☆
Abstract Planets within the habitable zones of M dwarfs are likely to be synchronous rotators; in other words, one side is permanently illuminated while the other side is in perpetual darkness. We
Habitable zones around main sequence stars.
The results suggest that mid-to-early K stars should be considered along with G stars as optimal candidates in the search for extraterrestrial life.
Habitable planets with high obliquities.
It is shown that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations, and that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances.
Discovery of a cool planet of 5.5 Earth masses through gravitational microlensing
The detection of a cool, sub-Neptune-mass planets may be more common than gas giant planets, as predicted by the core accretion theory, and is suggested to name OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb, indicating a planetary mass companion to the lens star of the microlensing event.
Scenario for the evolution of atmospheric pCO2 during a snowball Earth
The snowball Earth theory, initially proposed by J.L. Kirschvink to explain the Neoproterozoic glacial episodes, suggests that the Earth was globally ice covered at 720 Ma (Sturtian episode) and 640
Probability distribution of terrestrial planets in habitable zones around host stars
With more and more exoplanets being detected, it is paid closer attention to whether there are lives outside solar system. We try to obtain habitable zones and the probability distribution of
The Jormungand global climate state and implications for Neoproterozoic glaciations
[1] Geological and geochemical evidence can be interpreted as indicating strong hysteresis in global climate during the Neoproterozoic glacial events (∼630 Ma and ∼715 Ma). Standard climate theory