SOFIA-EXES Mid-IR Observations of [Fe II] Emission from the Extended Atmosphere of Betelgeuse

@article{Harper2017SOFIAEXESMO,
  title={SOFIA-EXES Mid-IR Observations of [Fe II] Emission from the Extended Atmosphere of Betelgeuse},
  author={G. Harper and C. DeWitt and M. Richter and T. Greathouse and N. Ryde and E. Guinan and E. O’Gorman and W. Vacca},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2017},
  volume={836},
  pages={22}
}
We present a NASA-DLR SOFIA-Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) and NASA Infrared Telescope Facility-Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) mid-IR R ≃ 50,000 spectral study of forbidden Fe II transitions in the early-type M supergiants, Betelgeuse (α Ori: M2 Iab) and Antares (α Sco: M1 Iab + B3 V). With EXES, we spectrally resolve the ground term [Fe II] 25.99 μm ( a 6DJ= 7/2-9/2: Eup = 540 K) emission from Betelgeuse. We find a small centroid blueshift of 1.9 ± 0.4 km s-1 that… Expand
The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - V. Rotation velocity and molecular envelope properties from ALMA
We observed Betelgeuse using ALMA's extended configuration in band 7 (f~340 GHz, {\lambda}~0.88 mm), resulting in a very high angular resolution of 18 mas. Using a solid body rotation model of theExpand
NOEMA maps the CO J = 2 − 1 environment of the red supergiant μ Cep
Red supergiant stars are surrounded by a gaseous and dusty circumstellar environment created by their mass loss which spreads heavy elements into the interstellar medium. The structure and theExpand
Electron-impact fine-structure excitation of Fe ii at low temperature
Fe II emission lines are observed from nearly all classes of astronomical objects over a wide spectral range from the infrared to the ultraviolet. To meaningfully interpret these lines, reliableExpand
SOFIA-EXES Observations of Betelgeuse during the Great Dimming of 2019/2020
In 2019 October Betelgeuse began a decline in V-band brightness that went beyond the minimum expected from its quasi-periodic ~420 day cycle, becoming the faintest in recorded photometric history.Expand
An Updated 2017 Astrometric Solution for Betelgeuse
We provide an update for the astrometric solution for the Type II supernova progenitor Betelgeuse using the revised Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (HIAD) of van Leeuwen, combined withExpand
The nature of giant clumps in distant galaxies probed by the anatomy of the cosmic snake
Giant stellar clumps are ubiquitous in high-redshift galaxies1,2. They are thought to play an important role in the build-up of galactic bulges3 and as diagnostics of star formation feedback inExpand
Atmosphere of Betelgeuse before and during the Great Dimming event revealed by tomography
Context. Despite being the best studied red supergiant star in our Galaxy, the physics behind the photometric variability and mass loss of Betelgeuse is poorly understood. Moreover, recently the starExpand
The Photospheric Temperatures of Betelgeuse during the Great Dimming of 2019/2020: No New Dust Required
The processes that shape the extended atmospheres of red supergiants (RSGs), heat their chromospheres, create molecular reservoirs, drive mass loss, and create dust remain poorly understood.Expand

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 65 REFERENCES
Texes Observations of M Supergiants: Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Wind Acceleration
We have detected [Fe II] 17.94 μm and 24.52 μm emission from a sample of M supergiants (μ Cep, α Sco, α Ori, CE Tau, AD Per, and α Her) using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph on NASA'sExpand
The outer atmosphere of the M-type supergiant α Orionis: K I 7699 Å emission
Spatially-resolved high-resolution long-slit spectra of Betelgeuse's circumstellar shell are described for a spectral window centered on the 7699 A resonance line of neutral potassium. The K iExpand
CARMA CO(J = 2 – 1) OBSERVATIONS OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE OF BETELGEUSE
We report radio interferometric observations of the 12 C 16 O1 .3 mmJ = 2 − 1 emission line in the circumstellar envelope of the M supergiant α Ori and have detected and separated both the S1 and S2Expand
High-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy from SOFIA using EXES
The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will provide new opportunities for high spectral resolution observations in the mid-infrared. To take advantage of these opportunities, weExpand
A Spatially Resolved, Semiempirical Model for the Extended Atmosphere of α Orionis (M2 Iab)
We have constructed a detailed mean density and temperature model for the extended outer atmosphere of the O-rich supergiant Betelgeuse (??Ori [M2 Iab]), which extends from 1.0 to 10.0 stellar radii.Expand
Red supergiants as potential Type IIn supernova progenitors: Spatially Resolved 4.6 Mum CO Emission Around VY CMa and Betelgeuse
We present high-resolution 4.6 mu m CO spectra of the circumstellar environments of two red supergiants (RSGs) that are potential supernova (SN) progenitors: Betelgeuse and VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa).Expand
Atomic Carbon in the Circumstellar Envelopes of Evolved Stars
We report James Clerk Maxwell Telescope observations of the 609 μm ground-state fine-structure line of neutral atomic carbon in the circumstellar envelopes of a sample of evolved late-type stars. C IExpand
The Antares emission nebula and mass loss of α Scorpii A
Aims. The Antares nebula is a peculiar emission nebula seen in numerous [Fe ii] lines and in radio free-free emission, probably associated with the H ii region caused by α Sco B in the wind of α ScoExpand
Detection of O I and Si II far-infrared fine-structure emission from Alpha Orionis
We have detected forbidden O I 63 micron and forbidden Si II 35 micron emission from the oxygen-rich, M2 lab supergiant, Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse). The forbidden O I line flux is 2.4 +/- 0.2 x 10Expand
The close circumstellar environment of Betelgeuse - IV. VLTI/PIONIER interferometric monitoring of the photosphere
Context. The mass-loss mechanism of cool massive evolved stars is poorly understood. The proximity of Betelgeuse makes it an appealing target to study its atmosphere, map the shape of its envelope,Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...