# SIMULATIONS OF ION ACCELERATION AT NON-RELATIVISTIC SHOCKS. I. ACCELERATION EFFICIENCY

@article{Caprioli2013SIMULATIONSOI, title={SIMULATIONS OF ION ACCELERATION AT NON-RELATIVISTIC SHOCKS. I. ACCELERATION EFFICIENCY}, author={Damiano Caprioli and Anatoly Spitkovsky}, journal={The Astrophysical Journal}, year={2013}, volume={783} }

We use two-dimensional and three-dimensional hybrid (kinetic ions–fluid electrons) simulations to investigate particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification at non-relativistic astrophysical shocks. We show that diffusive shock acceleration operates for quasi-parallel configurations (i.e., when the background magnetic field is almost aligned with the shock normal) and, for large sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers, produces universal power-law spectra ∝p−4, where p is the particle momentum…

## 306 Citations

### SIMULATIONS OF ION ACCELERATION AT NON-RELATIVISTIC SHOCKS. III. PARTICLE DIFFUSION

- Physics
- 2014

We use large hybrid (kinetic-protons–fluid-electrons) simulations to investigate the transport of energetic particles in self-consistent electromagnetic configurations of collisionless shocks. In…

### SIMULATIONS OF ION ACCELERATION AT NON-RELATIVISTIC SHOCKS. II. MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION

- Physics
- 2014

We use large hybrid simulations to study ion acceleration and generation of magnetic turbulence due to the streaming of particles that are self-consistently accelerated at non-relativistic shocks.…

### Kinetic simulations of mildly relativistic shocks – I. Particle acceleration in high Mach number shocks

- PhysicsMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
- 2019

We use fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations with unprecedentedly large transverse box sizes to study particle acceleration in weakly magnetized mildly relativistic shocks travelling at a…

### Kinetic Simulations of Cosmic-Ray-modified Shocks. I. Hydrodynamics

- PhysicsThe Astrophysical Journal
- 2020

Collisionless plasma shocks are efficient sources of nonthermal particle acceleration in space and astrophysical systems. We use hybrid (kinetic ion—fluid electron) simulations to examine the…

### SIMULATIONS AND THEORY OF ION INJECTION AT NON-RELATIVISTIC COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

- Physics
- 2014

We use kinetic hybrid simulations (kinetic ions–fluid electrons) to characterize the fraction of ions that are accelerated to non-thermal energies at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. We…

### Ion acceleration in non-relativistic quasi-parallel shocks using fully kinetic simulations

- Physics
- 2020

The formation of collisionless shock fronts is an ubiquitous phenomenon in space plasma environments. In the solar wind shocks might accompany coronal mass ejections, while even more violent events,…

### NON-THERMAL ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN LOW MACH NUMBER COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS. I. PARTICLE ENERGY SPECTRA AND ACCELERATION MECHANISM

- Physics
- 2014

Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies in low Mach number (Ms ≲ 5) shocks is revealed by radio and X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration…

### The effect of cosmic ray acceleration on supernova blast wave dynamics

- PhysicsMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
- 2018

Non-relativistic shocks accelerate ions to highly relativistic energies provided that the orientation of the magnetic field is closely aligned with the shock normal (quasi-parallel shock…

### Electron Acceleration in One-dimensional Nonrelativistic Quasi-perpendicular Collisionless Shocks

- PhysicsThe Astrophysical Journal
- 2020

We study diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of electrons in nonrelativistic quasi-perpendicular shocks using self-consistent one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. By exploring the parameter…

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