SHARPs: MammalianEnhancer-of-Split- andHairy-Related Proteins Coupled to Neuronal Stimulation

  title={SHARPs: MammalianEnhancer-of-Split- andHairy-Related Proteins Coupled to Neuronal Stimulation},
  author={Moritz J. Rossner and Jochen D{\"o}rr and Peter Gass and Markus H. Schwab and Klaus-Armin Nave},
  journal={Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience},
In the mammalian central nervous system, a diverse group of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins is involved in the determination of progenitor cells and, subsequently, in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here we report the identification of a novel subfamily of bHLH proteins, defined by two mammalian enhancer-of-split- and hairy-related proteins, termed SHARP-1 and SHARP-2. In contrast to known bHLH genes, detectable transcription of SHARP genes begins at the end of embryonic development… 
Stra13 and Sharp-1, the non-grouchy regulators of development and disease.
Molecular cloning and characterization of DEC2, a new member of basic helix-loop-helix proteins.
The identification and characterization of human, mouse and rat DEC2, a novel member of the DEC subfamily that showed a more restricted pattern of mRNA expression and may play an important role in tissue development.
bHLH-Orange Transcription Factors in Development and Cancer
The structure and biological functions of bHLH-O factors are reviewed, and recent studies that suggest a potential role for these factors in tumorigenesis and tumor progression are discussed.
The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein, SHARP-1, Represses Transcription by a Histone Deacetylase-dependent and Histone Deacetylase-independent Mechanism*
This study is the first report to assign a function to, and to identify a target gene for, the bHLH transcription factor SHARP-1, and identifies two independent repression domains that operate via distinct mechanisms.
Gene Expression of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor, SHARP-2, Is Regulated by Gonadotropins in the Rat Ovary and MA-10 Cells1
The level of SHarp-2 mRNA is regulated by gonadotropins and that SHARP-2 functions as a transcriptional repressor localized in the nucleus, which is concluded to be a bHLH protein family member.
Sharp-1/DEC2 Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Differentiation through Repression of Myogenic Transcription Factors*
It is reported here that endogenous Sharp-1 is expressed in proliferating C2C12 myoblasts and is down-regulated during myogenic differentiation, and it is demonstrated that the interaction ofSharp-1 with MyoD and E-proteins results in reduced DNA binding and transactivation from MyOD-dependent E-box sites.
Induction of basic helix-loop-helix protein DEC1 (BHLHB2)/Stra13/Sharp2 in response to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway.
It is suggested that DEC1 is a novel direct target for cAMP in wide types of cells, and that the bHLH protein is involved in the control of gene expression in cAMP-activated cells.
Insulin stimulates the expression of the SHARP-1 gene via multiple signaling pathways.
  • K. TakagiK. Asano K. Yamada
  • Biology
    Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • 2014
It is concluded that insulin induces the SHARP-1 gene expression at the transcription level via a both PI 3-K/aPKCλ/JNK- and a PI 3/Rac/J NK-signaling pathway; protein synthesis is required for this induction; and that SHarp-1 is a potential repressor of the PEPCK gene expression.


Two mammalian helix-loop-helix factors structurally related to Drosophila hairy and Enhancer of split.
The results suggest that HES-1 may play an important role in mammalian development by negatively acting on the two different sequences while Hes-3 acts as a repressor in a specific type of neurons.
Two rat homologues of Drosophila achaete-scute specifically expressed in neuronal precursors
From a sympathetic neuronal precursor cell line derived from the neural crest, two different mammalian genes that are homologous to genes of the achaete-scute complex are isolated.
Molecular characterization of HES-2, a mammalian helix-loop-helix factor structurally related to Drosophila hairy and Enhancer of split.
Results indicate that HES-2 acts as a negative regulator through interaction with both E-box and N-box sequences, and is present as early as embryonic day 9.5.
Conversion of Xenopus ectoderm into neurons by NeuroD, a basic helix-loop-helix protein.
The data suggest that neuroD may participate in the terminal differentiation step during vertebrate neuronal development and seems competent to bypass the normal inhibitory influences that usually prevent neurogenesis in ventral and lateral ectoderm.
Negative regulation of proneural gene activity: hairy is a direct transcriptional repressor of achaete.
The results demonstrate that HLH proteins negatively regulate ac transcription by at least two distinct mechanisms, and indicates that direct repression of ac by h plays an essential role in pattern formation in the PNS.