author={Catalina Estrada and Stefan Schulz and Selma Yildizhan and Lawrence E. Gilbert},
Competition for mates has resulted in sophisticated mechanisms of male control over female reproduction. Antiaphrodisiacs are pheromones transferred from males to females during mating that reduce attractiveness of females to subsequent courting males. Antiaphrodisiacs generally help unreceptive females reduce male harassment. However, lack of control over pheromone release by females and male control over the amount transferred provides males an opportunity to use antiaphrodisiacs to delay… 

Counter‐perfume: using pheromones to prevent female remating

  • C. Malouines
  • Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 2017
The taxonomic distribution of species using antiaphrodisiac pheromones, the selection pressures driving their evolution in both males and females, and the ecological interactions in which these pherumones are involved are examined.

Male sex pheromone components in Heliconius butterflies released by the androconia affect female choice

Morphological, chemical, and behavioural analyses of male pheromones in the Neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene demonstrate the importance of chemical signalling for female mate choice in Heliconii butterflies, and describe structures involved in release of the phersomone and a list of potential male sex pherOMone compounds.

Male sex pheromone components in the butterfly Heliconius melpomene

Morphological, chemical and behavioural analyses of a male pheromone in the neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene reveal subtle, but detectable, differences in female response to models scented with hindwing androconial extracts of mature conspecific males as compared to unscented controls.

Drosophila melanogaster females restore their attractiveness after mating by removing male anti-aphrodisiac pheromones

Female AAP ejection provides the first example of a female mechanism that counter-acts chemical mate-guarding, and results in increased attractiveness and re-mating.

Pheromone evolution and sexual behavior in Drosophila are shaped by male sensory exploitation of other males

It is demonstrated that an antiaphrodisiac produced by males of the melanogaster subgroup also is effective in distant Drosophila relatives that do not express the pheromone, illustrating that sensory adaptation occurs after sensory exploitation.

Female mate choice is a reproductive isolating barrier in Heliconius butterflies

Premating isolation between H. cydno females and H. pachinus entails both male and female mate choice, and female choice may be an important factor in the origin of Heliconius species.

An insect anti-antiaphrodisiac

Evidence was found of a complimentary mechanism that more accurately conveys female mating status, and the first evidence for such an anti-antiaphrodisiac pheromone, adding a new element to the communication mechanisms regulating reproductive behaviors.

Selection on male sex pheromone composition contributes to butterfly reproductive isolation

The results suggest that RCD is not anecdotal, and that selection for divergence in male sex pheromone composition contributed to reproductive isolation within the Bicyclus genus, and propose that selection may target olfactory mate choice traits as a more common sensory modality to ensure reproductive isolation among diverging lineages than previously envisaged.

Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

This study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies.

Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies

Testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis, found a key role for short‐distance cues in determining male choice in H.Timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation.



Sexual cooperation and conflict in butterflies: a male–transferred anti–aphrodisiac reduces harassment of recently mated females

It is shown that P. napi males transfer an anti–aphrodisiac to the female at mating, methyl–salicylate (MeS), which is a volatile substance which mated females emit when courted and which makes males quickly abandon them.

Sexual conflict and cooperation in butterfly reproduction: a comparative study of polyandry and female fitness

Female reproductive output, measured as cumulative egg mass divided by female mass, increased significantly with polyandry, demonstrating that the positive effect of mating rate on female reproductive fitness also holds between species.

Sexual conflict and anti–aphrodisiac titre in a polyandrous butterfly: male ejaculate tailoring and absence of female control

The results show that females housed for 5 days in individual cages where they were able to fly and oviposit normally, released similar amounts of MeS, but females housed together for the same period of time, causing them to frequently display the mate–refusal posture, released significantly lower levels of meS than the individually housed females, suggesting that female display of the mate-ref refusal posture depletes their anti–aphrodisiac stores.

Sex-specific chemical cues from immatures facilitate the evolution of mate guarding in Heliconius butterflies

Investigation of the cues involved in recognition of immature females in Heliconius charithonia, a butterfly that exhibits mate guarding by perching on pupae, found that males recognized female pupae using sex-specific volatile monoterpenes produced by them towards the end of pupal development.

Exploitation of Sexual Signals by Predators and Parasitoids

Signals used to attract mates are often conspicuous to predators and parasites, and their evolution via sexual selection is expected to be opposed by viability selection, while plants emit attractants analogous to secondary sex characters in animals, and may also be vulnerable to signal exploitation.

Antiaphrodisiacs in Pierid Butterflies: A Theme with Variation!

Male Pieris napi butterflies previously have been shown to synthesize and transfer an antiaphrodisiac, methyl salicylate (MeS), to females at mating. This substance curtails courtship and decreases

Mating system and the evolution of sex-specific mortality rates in two nymphalid butterflies

It is shown, in a laboratory experiment without predation, that the duration of the mating season is longer in the polyandrous comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album, than in the monandrous peacock butterfly, Inachis io, and that, in line with predictions, male lifespan is shorter than female lifespan in I. io.

The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in insects

A meta-analysis of 122 experimental studies addressing the direct effects of multiple mating on female fitness in insects shows that females gain directly from multiple matings in terms of increased lifetime offspring production, and supports the existence of an intermediate optimal female mating rate.

Female receptivity in butterflies and moths

  • N. Wedell
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2005
The various factors that are known to affect female receptivity in the Lepidoptera to date are summarized, and the function and similarity of the Pheromone Suppressing Peptide in moths to that of the Sex Peptides in Drosophila melanogaster are compared.