author={Michael A. Messner and Margaret Carlisle Duncan and K. Jensen},
  journal={Gender \& Society},
  pages={121 - 137}
This research compares and analyzes the verbal commentary of televised coverage of two women's and men's athletic events: the “final four” of the women's and men's 1989 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments and the women's and men's singles, women's and men's doubles, and the mixed-doubles matches of the 1989 U.S. Open tennis tournament. Although we found less overtly sexist commentary than has been observed in past research, we did find two categories of… 
"Man, That Was a Pretty Shot": An Analysis of Gendered Broadcast Commentary Surrounding the 2000 Men's and Women's NCAA Final Four Basketball Championships
Current research on sports broadcast commentary indicates that the commentary type employed to evaluate athletic performance by men and women is implicated through the language of gendered
“It’s Dude Time!”
The last quarter century has seen a dramatic movement of girls and women into sport, but this social change is reflected unevenly in sports media. This study, a 5-year update to a 25-year
“From Fizzle to Sizzle!” Televised Sports News and the Production of Gender-Bland Sexism
This article draws upon data collected as part of a 25-year longitudinal analysis of televised coverage of women’s sports to provide a window into how sexism operates during a postfeminist
Challenging the gender binary? Male basketball practice players’ views of female athletes and women’s sports
Abstract Kane’s ‘sport as a continuum’ theory posits many women can outperform many men in a variety of athletic endeavors. However, because sports are typically sex-segregated, this athletic
Trivializing the Female Body: A Cross-cultural Analysis of the Representation of Women in Sports Journalism
1. Introduction It is generally held that women are underrepresented in most types of media discourse. In his incisive 1996 study, van Dijk likened the representation given to women and women's
Let's (Not) Talk Sex: An Analysis of the Verbal and Visual Coverage of Women's Beach Volleyball during the 2008 Olympic Games
This study represents a content analysis of five matches of the US women's beach volleyball team during the 2008 Summer Games. Play-by-play commentary and between-play commentary were analyzed for
Games and Sets: Women, Media and Sport in Israel
The feminist critique of sport that has been sounded for over three decades concludes that the marginalization and trivialization of female athletes only serves to perpetuate male domination of
Anything Can Happen in Women’s Tennis, or Can It? An Empirical Investigation Into Bias in Sports Journalism
The claim that “anything is possible in women’s sports” frequently employed by both sports journalists and general audiences highlights the widespread perception of a seemingly uncontested truth
Impact of professional women athletes' media representations on collegiate women athletes
There is a lack of representation of women athletes from professional to collegiate sports in U.S. media. For example, Fink (2015) studied the inequities between male and women athletes to understand


Men's studies' scholars have begun to critically examine and deconstruct the meaning of masculinity, but thus far, most of their studies have focused exclusively on the lives of white, middle-class
Denial of Power in Televised Women’s Sports
Televised texts of women’s sports are examined using the hermeneutical method. This study begins with the observation that women’s participation in team sports and certain “male-appropriate”
The De-Athleticization of Women: The Naming and Gender Marking of Collegiate Sport Teams
American colleges and universities use nicknames, colors, logos, and mascots as identifying and unifying symbols, especially concerning their athletic teams. This paper examines the dark side of
Sports and Male Domination: The Female Athlete as Contested Ideological Terrain
This paper explores the historical and ideological meanings of organized sports for the politics of gender relations. After outlining a theory for building a historically grounded understanding of
The Discourse of Gender and Sport: From Femininity to Feminism
The argument presented here is that the sociological discourse of gender and sport, in other words the way the topic is approached, the assumptions surrounding its investigation, and the ways in
Language and Woman's Place
ABSTRACT Our use of language embodies attitudes as well as referential meanings. ‘Woman's language’ has as foundation the attitude that women are marginal to the serious concerns of life, which are
The purpose of this article is to assess Rosabeth Moss Kanter's work on tokenism in light of more than a decade of research and discussion. While Kanter argued that performance pressures, social
A Critique of Critiques: Radical and Feminist Writings on Sport
This paper reviews and evaluates two critiques of sport. The radical critique argues that sport is authoritarian, excessively competitive and exclusionary. The feminist critique holds that sport is
Sport, Men, and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives
This reference uses a relational concept of gender that critically examines and debunks traditional assumptions about men, women, and sport. Eighteen original articles explore the lives of individual