To study the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in MDS, the expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4, VEGF, MVD and apoptosis were measured in MDS. The results showed that the expression of SDF-1 of the low-grade MDS is higher than that of the high-grade MDS and the control. The high-grade MDS had a significantly higher CXCR4 expression on CD34+ cell than low-grade MDS and the control. It was suggested that the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis play an important role in MDS. Apoptosis was significantly increased in low-grade MDS, compared with high-grade MDS. The expression of VEGF and MVD were higher in the high-grade MDS than in the low-grade MDS. There are positive correlations between SDF-1 and apoptosis in the low-grade MDS. For the high-grade MDS, there were positive correlations between CXCR4 and VEGF, and between SDF-1 concentration and MVD. The apoptosis is one of the hallmarks for low-grade MDS and the angiogenesis for high-grade MDS. A refined understanding of the roles that SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and its correlation with angiogenesis and apoptosis play in MDS will fuel the development of therapies that can be targeted to the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.