A comparative study of the immunohistochemical (Stem cell leukemia/T-cell acute leukemia [SCL/TAL-1] protein expression) and genotypic (deletions in the SCL/tal-1 gene) findings in T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is presented. Formalin-fixed tissue from 50 cases of T-ALL were stained with a novel monoclonal antibody, 2TL 242, which recognizes SCL/TAL-1 protein. Twenty-four cases showed nuclear immunolabeling of leukemic cells. Nuclear positivity was not evident in any other type of leukemia or lymphoma tested with the antibody. Genotypic analysis of 25 cases of T-ALL showed a deletion involving the SCL/tal-1 gene in nine cases. These results suggest that protein expression is not dependent on derangement of the SCL/tal-1 gene, because immunohistochemical detection of the protein was noted in the presence and absence of a tal-d1 deletion.