SATB1 targets chromatin remodelling to regulate genes over long distances

@article{Yasui2002SATB1TC,
  title={SATB1 targets chromatin remodelling to regulate genes over long distances},
  author={Dag H. Yasui and Masaru Miyano and Shutao Cai and Patrick D. Varga-Weisz and Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2002},
  volume={419},
  pages={641-645}
}
Eukaryotic chromosomes are organized inside the nucleus in such a way that only a subset of the genome is expressed in any given cell type, but the details of this organization are largely unknown. SATB1 (‘special AT-rich sequence binding 1’), a protein found predominantly in thymocytes, regulates genes by folding chromatin into loop domains, tethering specialized DNA elements to an SATB1 network structure. Ablation of SATB1 by gene targeting results in temporal and spatial mis-expression of… 
Tissue-specific nuclear architecture and gene expession regulated by SATB1
TLDR
In thymocyte nuclei, SATB1 has a cage-like 'network' distribution circumscribing heterochromatin and selectively tethers specialized DNA sequences onto its network, providing sites for tissue-specific organization of DNA sequences and regulating region-specific histone modification.
SATB1 packages densely looped, transcriptionally active chromatin for coordinated expression of cytokine genes
TLDR
RNA interference shows that on cell activation, SATB1 is required not only for compacting chromatin into dense loops at the 200-kb cytokine locus but also for inducing Il4, Il5, Il13 and c-Maf expression.
Deeply hidden genome organization directly mediated by SATB1
TLDR
A modified ChIP-seq protocol is developed that stringently purifies genomic DNA only with its directly-associated proteins and unmasked previously-hidden BURs as direct SATB1 targets genome-wide, revealing TAD-independent chromatin folding mediated by BUR sequences which serve as genome architecture landmarks for direct targeting by cell type-specific gene regulator, SATB 1.
Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of SATB1, the higher-order chromatin organizer and global gene regulator.
TLDR
Methods for overexpression and purification of full length SATB1 protein and for its in vitro phosphorylation are described and a functional assay to monitor the effect of phosphorylated on transcription activity of SATB 1 in vivo is described using MAR-linked reporter assay, in the presence and absence of PKC inhibitors.
Tetramerization of SATB1 is essential for regulating of gene expression
TLDR
Whether SATB1’s oligomerization is critical to its function as a global repressor of gene expression in vivo is illustrated to illustrate.
The AT-rich DNA-binding Protein SATB2 Promotes Expression and Physical Association of Human Gγ- and Aγ-Globin Genes*
TLDR
The results establish SATB2 as a novel γ-globin gene regulator and provide a glimpse of the differential and cooperative roles of SATB family proteins in modulating clustered genes transcription and mediating higher-order chromatin structures.
SATB2 interacts with chromatin‐remodeling molecules in differentiating cortical neurons
TLDR
Results suggested that an altered chromatin structure, due to the presence of different AT‐rich DNA binding proteins in the chromatin‐remodeling complex, may contribute to the developmental abnormalities observed in the SATB2 mutant animals.
The 3D enhancer network of the developing T cell genome is controlled by SATB1
TLDR
The function of a tissue-specific factor that controls transcription programs, via spatial chromatin arrangements complementary to the chromatin structure imposed by ubiquitously expressed genome organizers, is unraveled.
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