SATB1 targets chromatin remodelling to regulate genes over long distances

  title={SATB1 targets chromatin remodelling to regulate genes over long distances},
  author={Dag H. Yasui and Masaru Miyano and Shutao Cai and Patrick D. Varga-Weisz and Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu},
Eukaryotic chromosomes are organized inside the nucleus in such a way that only a subset of the genome is expressed in any given cell type, but the details of this organization are largely unknown. SATB1 (‘special AT-rich sequence binding 1’), a protein found predominantly in thymocytes, regulates genes by folding chromatin into loop domains, tethering specialized DNA elements to an SATB1 network structure. Ablation of SATB1 by gene targeting results in temporal and spatial mis-expression of… 
Tissue-specific nuclear architecture and gene expession regulated by SATB1
In thymocyte nuclei, SATB1 has a cage-like 'network' distribution circumscribing heterochromatin and selectively tethers specialized DNA sequences onto its network, providing sites for tissue-specific organization of DNA sequences and regulating region-specific histone modification.
SATB1 packages densely looped, transcriptionally active chromatin for coordinated expression of cytokine genes
RNA interference shows that on cell activation, SATB1 is required not only for compacting chromatin into dense loops at the 200-kb cytokine locus but also for inducing Il4, Il5, Il13 and c-Maf expression.
Deeply hidden genome organization directly mediated by SATB1
A modified ChIP-seq protocol is developed that stringently purifies genomic DNA only with its directly-associated proteins and unmasked previously-hidden BURs as direct SATB1 targets genome-wide, revealing TAD-independent chromatin folding mediated by BUR sequences which serve as genome architecture landmarks for direct targeting by cell type-specific gene regulator, SATB 1.
Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of SATB1, the higher-order chromatin organizer and global gene regulator.
Methods for overexpression and purification of full length SATB1 protein and for its in vitro phosphorylation are described and a functional assay to monitor the effect of phosphorylated on transcription activity of SATB 1 in vivo is described using MAR-linked reporter assay, in the presence and absence of PKC inhibitors.
Tetramerization of SATB1 is essential for regulating of gene expression
Whether SATB1’s oligomerization is critical to its function as a global repressor of gene expression in vivo is illustrated to illustrate.
The AT-rich DNA-binding Protein SATB2 Promotes Expression and Physical Association of Human Gγ- and Aγ-Globin Genes*
The results establish SATB2 as a novel γ-globin gene regulator and provide a glimpse of the differential and cooperative roles of SATB family proteins in modulating clustered genes transcription and mediating higher-order chromatin structures.
SATB2 interacts with chromatin‐remodeling molecules in differentiating cortical neurons
Results suggested that an altered chromatin structure, due to the presence of different AT‐rich DNA binding proteins in the chromatin‐remodeling complex, may contribute to the developmental abnormalities observed in the SATB2 mutant animals.
The 3D enhancer network of the developing T cell genome is controlled by SATB1
The function of a tissue-specific factor that controls transcription programs, via spatial chromatin arrangements complementary to the chromatin structure imposed by ubiquitously expressed genome organizers, is unraveled.


The MAR-binding protein SATB1 orchestrates temporal and spatial expression of multiple genes during T-cell development.
SATB1 appears to orchestrate the temporal and spatial expression of genes during T-cell development, thereby ensuring the proper development of this lineage and providing the first evidence that MAR-binding proteins can act as global regulators of cell function in specific cell lineages.
Sin Meets NuRD and Other Tails of Repression
Histone acetyltransferases.
This review discusses the current understanding of histone acetyl transferases (HATs) or acetyltransferases (ATs): their discovery, substrate specificity, catalytic mechanism, regulation, and functional links to transcription, as well as to other chromatin-modifying activities.
HuCHRAC, a human ISWI chromatin remodelling complex contains hACF1 and two novel histone‐fold proteins
It is shown that the human homologues of two novel putative histone‐fold proteins in Drosophila CHRAC are present in HuCHRAC, suggesting a conserved function of ISWI in heterochromatin dynamics.
An Engine for Nucleosome Remodeling
Chromatin remodeling enzymes: who's on first?
Matrix Attachment Region-Dependent Function of the Immunoglobulin μ Enhancer Involves Histone Acetylation at a Distance without Changes in Enhancer Occupancy
The data indicate that the function of MARs in mediating long-range chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activation of the VHpromoter involves the generation of an extended domain of histone acetylation, independent of changes in the occupancy of the μ enhancer.
Nuclear matrix attachment regions antagonize methylation-dependent repression of long-range enhancer-promoter interactions.
It is found that methylation of rearranged mu genes in vitro, before transfection, represses the ability of the mu enhancer to activate the V(H) promoter over the distance of 1.2 kb, and methylation does not affect enhancer-mediated promoter activation over a distance of 150 bp.
Looping versus linking: toward a model for long-distance gene activation.
Models for the establishment of active chromatin domains by LCRs are summarized and the evidence for the looping model of long-distance gene activation of enhancer and LCR function is described.
Extension of chromatin accessibility by nuclear matrix attachment regions
This work eliminated interactions between enhancer- and promoter-bound factors by linking μ enhancer/MAR fragments to the binding sites for bacteriophage RNA polymerases that were either close to or one kilobase distal to the enhancer.