SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development

@article{Krammer2020SARSCoV2VI,
  title={SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development},
  author={Florian Krammer},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2020},
  pages={1-12}
}
  • F. Krammer
  • Published 23 September 2020
  • Medicine
  • Nature
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in late 2019 in China and is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To mitigate the effects of the virus on public health, the economy and society, a vaccine is urgently needed. Here I review the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Development was initiated when the genetic sequence of the virus became available in early January 2020, and has moved at an unprecedented speed… 
COVID-19 Vaccines: A Primer for Clinicians.
TLDR
A summary of the host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the vaccine platforms being used with COVID-19 vaccine candidates undergoing, or about to undergo, Phase III clinical trial testing, and an overview of the key criteria necessary for COVID -19 vaccine efficacy and safety are provided.
An overview of current COVID-19 vaccine platforms
Correlates of Vaccine-Induced Protection against SARS-CoV-2
TLDR
Reports are reported on immunogenicity against natural SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccine-induced immune responses and immunological markers that can be linked to protection and a comprehensive overview of possible efficacy measures and CoP.
Immunogenicity and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in clinical trials.
TLDR
The primary efficacy endpoint for a random placebo-controlled clinical trial of a COVID-19 vaccine to be approved by US FDA should confer at least 50% protection against CO VID-19.
Development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: challenges, risks, and the way forward
TLDR
This review analyzes the complexities, challenges, and other vital issues associated with the development of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine to find the ways to speed up vaccine development.
Recent Antiviral Treatment and Vaccination Strategies Against SARS-CoV-2.
TLDR
An overview of therapeutic options for COVID-19 as well as vaccines for protection against SARS-CoV-2 is provided.
Antibody Responses to Natural SARS-CoV-2 Infection or after COVID-19 Vaccination
TLDR
This review summarizes the main knowledge that is known about the humoral immune response during COVID-19 disease or after vaccination and should help to optimize vaccination strategies and public health decisions.
SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Based on the Spike Glycoprotein and Implications of New Viral Variants
TLDR
The different types of vaccines designed and developed against SARS-CoV-2 are reviewed, placing emphasis on whether they are based on the complete S glycoprotein, its antigenic domains such as the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or short epitopes within the S Glycoprotein.
Immunity to SARS-CoV-2: Lessons Learned
TLDR
This narrative review summary summarizes the latest and rapidly developing understanding of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection, including what the authors have learned about the key antigens of Sars-Cov-2 (i.e., the spike protein and its receptor-binding domain), their importance in vaccine development, the immediate immune response to SARs, and breadth of coverage of emerging SAR variants.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 102 REFERENCES
Development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2
TLDR
Preclinical results of an early vaccine candidate called PiCoVacc, which protected rhesus macaque monkeys against SARS-CoV-2 infection when analyzed in short-term studies, support the clinical development and testing of Pi coVacc for use in humans.
A Scalable Topical Vectored Vaccine Candidate against SARS-CoV-2
TLDR
Broad-scale in vitro characterization of a recombinant vaccine candidate demonstrated efficient co-expression of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase of AOaV-1 and S protein of SARS-CoV-2, and comparable replication kinetics were observed in a cell culture model.
Adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in BALB/c mice for testing vaccine efficacy
TLDR
A mouse model in which a SARS-CoV-2 strain was infectious and could cause an inflammatory response and moderate pneumonia is developed, and a panel of adaptive mutations potentially associated with the increased virulence are revealed.
An mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 — Preliminary Report
TLDR
The mRNA-1273 vaccine induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses in all participants, and no trial-limiting safety concerns were identified, which support further development of this vaccine.
DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques
TLDR
Analysis of the vaccine candidates in rhesus macaques showed that animals developed protective humoral and cellular immune responses when challenged with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, suggesting an immune correlate of protection.
Evaluation of the susceptibility of mice & hamsters to SARS-CoV-2 infection
TLDR
The susceptibility of a few laboratory rodents to SARS-CoV-2 is evaluated at the Maximum Containment Laboratory, Indian Council of Medical Research National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.
SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Design Enabled by Prototype Pathogen Preparedness
A vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is needed to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Structural studies have led to the development
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine prevents SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques
TLDR
It is shown that the adenovirus-vector-based vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, which encodes the spike protein of SARS- CoV-2, is immunogenic in mice and elicites a robust humoral and cell-mediated response.
Infection with novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causes pneumonia in Rhesus macaques
TLDR
It is demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies generated from the primary infection could protect the Rhesus macaques from a second-round challenge by SARS-CoV-2, and the non-human primate model that is established here provides a valuable platform to study Sars-Co V-2 pathogenesis and to evaluate candidate vaccines and therapeutics.
Potent neutralizing antibodies against multiple epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike
TLDR
A diverse collection of potent neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein have been isolated from five patients with severe COVID-19 and high serum neutralization titres, suggesting both of these regions at the top of the viral spike are immunogenic.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...