SALT AND HYPERTENSION *

@article{Tobian1980SALTAH,
  title={SALT AND HYPERTENSION *},
  author={Louis J. Tobian},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={1980},
  volume={304}
}
  • L. Tobian
  • Published 1 March 1978
  • Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Interest in the relationship between salt and hypertension originally centered on the lowering of hypertensive blood pressures with diets very low in sodium chloride. Ambard and Beaujard first proclaimed this principle, and F. M. Allen vigorously urged low salt diets 25 years later. Then, William Kempner introduced the rice diet, which had its antihypertensive effect as a low salt diet. Perera noted that even a week on a high salt intake would slightly raise the blood pressure of subjects with… 
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Two studies demonstrate a potential role for sodium and potassium in blood pressure regulation in normotensive man and suggest that heterogeneity of response may be involved in the development of hypertension in individuals predisposed to avid sodium conservation.
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TLDR
It appears that the suppression of renal depressor-natriuretic systems play an important role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension through the retention of sodium and body fluid volume.
Does the sodium level in drinking water affect blood pressure levels?
  • C. J. Hoffman
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Dietetic Association
  • 1988
Environmental and physiological characteristics in adolescents genetically predisposed to hypertension.
TLDR
The results indicate that the abnormal relationships of aldosterone to kallikrein metabolism and of kallIKrein to renal function control may be involved as hereditary factors in the development of hypertension.
Effects of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide on the salt-induced cardiac and renal hypertrophy in normotensive rats
TLDR
A high intake of sodium chloride produced hypertrophy both in the heart and in the kidneys, even in the absence of a rise in blood pressure, and salt also remarkably increased the urinary calcium excretion.
Univalent Cation Fluxes in Human Erythrocytes from Individuals with Low or Normal Sodium Intake
TLDR
Levels of intracellular sodium and Na+,K+ cotransport activity, which increase in patients with hypertension, decreased in those consuming a low-sodium vegan diet, confirming the observation that systolic and diastolic blood pressures were lower in the strict vegans than in the controls.
Sodium handling by the Sabra hypertension prone (SBH) and resistant (SBN) rats
TLDR
Findings indicate disparate renal sodium handling between Sabra hypertension-prone and SBN rats, already apparent before the onset of hypertension, which dissipates during doca-salt treatment.
Total Exchangeable Sodium in Rats with Mestranol-Induced Hypertension
  • N. Abas, J. A. Johnson
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1989
TLDR
No changes in total exchangeable sodium in mestranol-hypertensive rats were found in these studies and the values found were very similar to the value of 39.87 ± 0.63 mEq/kg found in the control rats.
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References

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TLDR
Differences in genetic substrate appear to influence the development of experimental hypertension produced by these three techniques and possibly this may hold true for all "varieties" of Experimental hypertension.
Hypertension Caused by Salt Loading in the Dog
TLDR
It is concluded that salt loading in a partially nephrectomized dog causes elevated arterial pressure that is initially induced by increased cardiac output but that is eventually sustained by increased peripheral resistance.
Effect of Varying Perfusion Pressures on the Output of Sodium and Renin and the Vascular Resistance in Kidneys of Rats with “Post‐Salt” Hypertension and Kyoto Spontaneous Hypertension
TLDR
Kyoto hypertensive kidneys are apparently not “reset” to maintain hypertension with either Na or renin, and this shift in the “pressure natriuresis” curve explains in part how some “hypertensive” kidneys maintain hypertension.
Renal Function Studies in the Early Stage of Salt Hypertension in Rats.∗
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TLDR
Renal function studies were performed in 2 groups of young rats from a strain genetically prone to hypertension, and it was concluded that the development of salt hypertension in these rats was not associated with evidence of impaired glomerular filtration rate or renal plasma flow during the early phases of the disease.
CHRONIC SODIUM CHLORIDE TOXICITY IN THE ALBINO RAT
TLDR
Sustained arterial hypertension developed in male, albino rats chronically fed diets rich in sodium chloride with demineralized drinking water available ad libitum and the relative volume of the radiosodium space was increased in the rat by high dietary sodium chloride.
Tissue Cations and Water in Arterial Hypertension
Human hypertensive subjects were found to have an increased sodium and water concentration in renal artery and psoas muscle. Hypertensive rats showed a high water content in their aortas. If the
Structurally based increase of flow resistance in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
TLDR
Flow resistance in the maximally dilated systemic vessels was increased in the spontaneously hypertensive rats to an extent that largely equalled their raised blood pressure during “resting” conditions, the difference to the control animals being highly significant.
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  • Biology, Medicine
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TLDR
It is concluded that the medullary collecting duct is a major site for the regulation of urinary excretion of both salt and water.
The haemodynamic consequences of adaptive structural changes of the resistance vessels in hypertension.
TLDR
The debate has mainly been concerned about whether the assumed increase of vascular tone is due to enhanced myogenic activity, to an increased neurogenic and/or hormonal exogenous stimulation of the vascular smooth muscles or whether these muscles might exhibit an enhanced sensitivity or ‘reactivity’ to such extrinsic stimuli.
Effect of Pulse Pressure and Mean Arterial Pressure Modification on Renal Hemodynamics and Electrolyte and Water Excretion
TLDR
Studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of pulsatile versus nonpulsatile arterial perfusion pressure on plasma flow, filtration rate, sodium excretion, and urine volume, and mechanisms by which modifications in salt and water excretion could result from alteration in the mean arterial pressure.
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