S100-Alarmins Are Essential Pilots of Postnatal Innate Immune Adaptation

@article{Viemann2020S100AlarminsAE,
  title={S100-Alarmins Are Essential Pilots of Postnatal Innate Immune Adaptation},
  author={Dorothee Viemann},
  journal={Frontiers in Immunology},
  year={2020},
  volume={11}
}
  • D. Viemann
  • Published 30 April 2020
  • Biology
  • Frontiers in Immunology
The restricted capacity of newborn infants to mount inflammatory responses toward microbial challenges has traditionally been linked to the high risk of septic diseases during the neonatal period. In recent years, substantial evidence has been provided that this characteristic of the neonatal immune system is actually a meaningful physiologic state that is based on specific transiently active cellular and molecular mechanisms and required for a favorable course of postnatal immune adaptation… 

Figures from this paper

Monocytes in Neonatal Bacterial Sepsis: Think Tank or Workhorse?
TLDR
Clinical studies have shown that exposure to inflammation puts neonates at a high risk for adverse pulmonary, immunological and other organ developments, which may result in multiorgan disease.
Correlation Between Plasma High Mobility Group Protein N1 Level and the Prognosis of Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction: Preliminary Findings
TLDR
HMGN1 levels are positively correlated with the severity of ACI and could be used to predict the prognosis of these patients, and can be used as a biological marker and potential target for clinical assessment and therapy of ACi.
Role of myeloid derived suppressor cells in sepsis

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 97 REFERENCES
S100-alarmin-induced innate immune programming protects newborn infants from sepsis
TLDR
It is suggested that neonates are characterized by a selective, transient microbial unresponsiveness that prevents harmful hyperinflammation in the delicate neonate while allowing for sufficient immunological protection.
In neonates S100A8/S100A9 alarmins prevent the expansion of a specific inflammatory monocyte population promoting septic shock
  • Anna S. Heinemann, S. Pirr, D. Viemann
  • Medicine, Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2017
TLDR
The data suggest that a specific population of inflammatory monocytes promotes fatal courses of sepsis in neonates if its expansion is not regulated by S100A8/S100A9 alarmins, which are associated with hyperinflammatory responses during endotoxemia and fatal septic courses.
Innate immunity of the newborn: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates
  • O. Levy
  • Medicine, Biology
    Nature Reviews Immunology
  • 2007
TLDR
Invention of innate immunity in newborns is described and how this knowledge might be used to prevent and treat infection in this vulnerable population is discussed.
Hyper innate responses in neonates lead to increased morbidity and mortality after infection
TLDR
It is shown that T cells are sufficient and necessary to control the early inflammatory response to LPS and that an uncontrolled proinflammatory innate response due to inadequate T cells makes neonates more vulnerable to TLR agonists or viral infection.
High Amounts of S100-Alarmins Confer Antimicrobial Activity on Human Breast Milk Targeting Pathogens Relevant in Neonatal Sepsis
TLDR
The enteral supply of bioavailable, antimicrobially active amounts of S100-alarmins might be a promising option to protect newborns at high risk from infections and sepsis.
Environment impacts innate immune ontogeny
TLDR
The observations that innate response differences present at birth subsequently equalized rather than diverged suggest a key role for environmental effects common to both racial groups in shaping the innate immune responses early in life.
The neonatal window of opportunity—early priming for life
Constitutive TNF‐α signaling in neonates is essential for the development of tissue‐resident leukocyte profiles at barrier sites
  • Marie S Bickes, S. Pirr, D. Viemann
  • Biology, Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2019
TLDR
It is demonstrated that healthy neonates showed already strong endothelial baseline activation, which was mediated by a constitutively increased production of TNF‐α, which suggests that constitutive TNF—mediated sterile endothelial activation in newborn infants contributes to the increased risk of developing SIRS but is needed to ensure the postnatal recruitment of leukocytes to organs and interfaces.
Autoinhibitory regulation of S100A8/S100A9 alarmin activity locally restricts sterile inflammation
TLDR
This work unravels for the first time, to the knowledge, a mechanism of autoinhibition in mice and humans restricting S100-DAMP activity to local sites of inflammation, and identifies specific peptide sequences within the second calcium-binding EF-hands triggering TLR4/MD2-dependent inflammation.
Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system
TLDR
Advances in understanding of age-related remodelling of immune networks and the consequent tuning of immune responsiveness will open up new possibilities for immune intervention and vaccine strategies that are designed specifically for early life.
...
...