Russian Roads to Mecca: Religious Tolerance and Muslim Pilgrimage in the Russian Empire

@article{Brower1996RussianRT,
  title={Russian Roads to Mecca: Religious Tolerance and Muslim Pilgrimage in the Russian Empire},
  author={Daniel R. Brower},
  journal={Slavic Review},
  year={1996},
  volume={55},
  pages={567 - 584}
}
  • D. Brower
  • Published 1 September 1996
  • History
  • Slavic Review
The Russian empire provided Islam a sheltered but precarious place within its borders. Sporadic efforts at forced conversion to Orthodoxy ended in 1773 with Catherine II's edict of religious tolerance, which officially acknowledged the existence of the Muslim community and allowed the free practice of its essential religious rites. Among these, pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) was one of the most sacred. But distrust of Islam and fear of Muslim revolt, fed by an almost paranoid apprehension of pan… 

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