Russian Modernization in East Anatolia: The Case of Kars

@inproceedings{Gurallar2020RussianMI,
  title={Russian Modernization in East Anatolia: The Case of Kars},
  author={Neşe Gurallar},
  year={2020}
}
On the Armenian border of Turkey, Kars was under the rule of tsarist Russia between the years 1877 and 1917. In this period, Kars was rebuilt with a gridded urban plan and furnished with magnificent churches and other public buildings. This article studies the urban and architectural history of Kars in order to gain a deeper understanding of the complex relations between modernity, Russian colonization, and the memories of the city’s traumatic past. An embryo of modern urban bourgeois life…