Running backwards: soft landing-hard takeoff, a less efficient rebound.

@article{Cavagna2011RunningBS,
  title={Running backwards: soft landing-hard takeoff, a less efficient rebound.},
  author={Giovanni A. Cavagna and Mario A. Legramandi and Antonio La Torre},
  journal={Proceedings. Biological sciences},
  year={2011},
  volume={278 1704},
  pages={339-46}
}
Human running at low and intermediate speeds is characterized by a greater average force exerted after 'landing', when muscle-tendon units are stretched ('hard landing'), and a lower average force exerted before 'takeoff', when muscle-tendon units shorten ('soft takeoff'). This landing-takeoff asymmetry is consistent with the force-velocity relation of the 'motor' (i.e. with the basic property of muscle to resist stretching with a force greater than that developed during shortening), but it may… CONTINUE READING
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